PSC 124

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sooah0207
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108648
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PSC 124
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2011-10-13 05:26:23
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ch 5 & 6
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  1. hegemonic wars
    war for control of the entire world order- the rules of the international system as a whole. also known as world war, global war, general war, or systemic war.
  2. total war
    warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another; modern total war originated in the napoleonic wars, which relied on conscription on a mass scale.
  3. LIMITED WAR
    military actions that seek objectives short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy
  4. civil war
    a war between factions within a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it.
  5. guerilla war
    warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of and often hidden or protected by civilian populations
  6. truth commissions-
    governmental bodies established in several countries after internal wars to hear honest testimony and bring to light what really happened during these wars and in exchange to offer most of the participants asylum for punishment
  7. cycle theories
    an effort to explain tendencies toward war in the international system as cynical; for example, by linking wars with long waves in the world economy.
  8. nationalism-
    identification with and devotion to the interests of one's nation. it usually involves a large group of people who share a national identity and often a language, culture or ancestry.
  9. self determination
    implies that people who identify as a nation should have the right to form a state and exercise sovereignty over their affairs.
  10. fascism
    an extreme authoritarianism girded by national chauvinism
  11. ethnic groups
    large groups of people who share ancestral, language, cultural, or religious ties and a common identity.
  12. ethnocentrism
    the tendency to see one's own group in favorable terms and an out-group in unfavorable terms
  13. dehumanization-
    stigmatization of enemies as subhuman or nonhuman, leading frequently to widespread massacres or worse.
  14. genocide
    an intentional and systematic attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, in whole or part.
  15. fundamentalism
    members of these movements organize their ives and communities around their religious beliefs; many are willing to sacrifice, kill, and die for those beliefs.
  16. secular government-
    a state created apart from religious establishments and in which there is a high degree of separation between religious and political organizations
  17. irredentism-
    a form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state; it can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts.
  18. secession
    nationalist group in a region attempts to form own state.
  19. ethnic cleansing-
    euphemism for forced displacement of an ethnic group or groups from a territory, accompanied by massacres and other human rights violations; it has occurred after the breakup of multinational states, notably in the former yugoslavia.
  20. airspace-
    the space above a state that is considered its territory, in contrast to outer space, which is considered international territory.
  21. mercantilism
    an economic theory and a political ideology opposed to free trade; it shares with realism the belief that each state must protect its own interests without seeking mutual gains through international organizations.
  22. lateral pressure
    this theory holds that the economic growth of states lead to geographic expansion as they seek natural resources beyond their borders (by various means, peaceful and violent.)
  23. ethnic identity
    powerful identity with intense emotion (common origins and descent, shared history, strong sense of belonging, cultural ties like religion)
  24. intractability
    difficult to manipulate or change a situation.
  25. Collusion
    is an agreement between two or more persons, sometimes illegal and therefore secretive, to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair advantage
  26. distortion
    psychological response to threat- to force meaning onto information or event that is invalidating.
  27. fundamentalism
    strict adherence to a doctrine, usually religious doctrine, although has been applied to supreme court and constitution
  28. islam islamism
    religion groups that have political goals, use islam
  29. counterinsurgency
    an effort to combat guerilla armies, often including programs to "win the hearts and minds" of rural populations so that they stop sheltering guerillas.
  30. land mines-
    concealed explosive devices, often left being by irregular armies, that kill or maim civilians after wars end. such mines number more than 100 million, primarily in Angola, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Cambodia. A movement to ban land mines is underway.
  31. navies
    are adapted primarily to control passage through the seas and to attack land near coastlines.
  32. power projection
    the ability to use military force in areas far from a country's region or sphere of influence.
  33. air forces- purposes
    : 1. strategic bombing of land or sea targets. 2) close air support (battlefield bombing) 3. interception of other aircraft 4) reconnaissance 5. airlift of supplies, weapons, and troops
  34. logistical support-
    food, fuel, ordinance, body armor, etc
  35. electronic warfare
    use of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, radar, infrared, etc.) in war, such as employing electromagnetic signals for one's own benefit while denying their use to an enemy.
  36. cyberwar-
    the use of computing systems and the internet to conduct warfare in cyberspace
  37. stealth technology
    the use of special radar absorbent materials and unusual shapes in the design of aircraft, missiles, and ships to scatter enemy radar
  38. revolution in military affairs
    a period when there is a basic transformation in military operations/systems.
  39. terrorism
    political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
  40. state-sponsored terrorism-
    use of terrorist groups by states, or actions by states defined as terrorist
  41. weapons of mass destruction
    nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, all distinguished from conventional weapons by their enormous potential lethality and their relative lack of discrimination in whom they kill.
  42. manhattan project-
    effort in WWII to develop first nuclear weapons. develeoped and detonated 1945.
  43. delivery systems
    getting to the target
  44. strategic weapons
    long distance to enemy
  45. tactical weapons
    shorter distances on battlefield
  46. ballistic missile
    the major strategic delivery vehicle for nuclear weapons; it carries a warhead along a trajectory and lets it drop on the target.
  47. intercontinental ballistic missiles
    the longest range ballistic missiles, able to travel 5000 miles
  48. cruise missile
    a small winged missile that can navigate across thousands of miles of previously mapped terrain to reach a particular target; it can carry either a nuclear or a conventional warhead.
  49. missile technology control regime-
    a set of agreements through which industrialized states try to limit the flow of missile-relevant technology to third world states.
  50. chemical weapons convention
    an agreement that bans the production and possession of chemical weapons and includes strict verification provisions and the threat of sanctions against violators and nonparticipants in the treaty
  51. biological weapons convention
    an agreement that prohibits the development, production, and possession of biological weapons, but makes no provision for inspections.
  52. proliferation
    the spread of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical or biological weapons) into the hands of more actors
  53. non proliferation treaty (NPT)
    a treaty that created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise, including the international atomic energy agency
  54. IAEA-
    international atomic energy agency a UN agency based in Vienna that is charged with inspecting the nuclear power industry in NPT member states to prevent secret military diversions of nuclear materials.
  55. nuclear strategy
    refers to decisions about how many nuclear weapons to deploy, what delivery systems to put them on, and what policies to adopt regarding the circumstances in which they would be used.
  56. first strike -
    an attack intended to destroy (largely or entirely) a state's nuclear weapons before they can be used. second strike- weapons that can take a first strike and still strike back
  57. mutually assured destruction
    the possession of second-strike nuclear capabilities, which ensures that neither of the two adversaries could prevent the other from destroying it in an all out war.
  58. strategic defense initiative
    a US effort, AKA star wars, to develop defenses that could shoot down incoming ballistic missiles, spurred by president ronald reagan
  59. arms control-
    is an effort by two or more states to regulate by formal agreement their acquisition of weapons
  60. antiballistic missile treaty
    a treaty that prohibited either the united states or the soviet union from using a ballistic missile defense as a shield, which would have undermined mutually assured destruction and the basis of deterrence.
  61. SALT
    strategic arms limitation treaties - put formal ceilings on the growth of both side's strategic weapons.
  62. comprehensive test ban treaty
    a treaty that bans all nuclear weapons testing, thereby broadening the ban on atmospheric testing negotiated in 1963.
  63. chain of command
    a hierarchy of officials (often civilian as well as military0 through which states control military forces
  64. civil-military relations
    the relations between a state's civilian leaders and the military leadership. in most countries, the military takes orders from civilian leaders. in extreme cases, poor civil-military relations can lead to military coups.
  65. coup d'etat
    french for blow against the state. a term that refers to the seizure of political power by domestic military forces - that is, a change of political power outside the state's constitutional order.
  66. military government
    states i which military forces control the government; they are most common in third world countries, where the military may be the only large modern institution.

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