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Depress the reticular activating system (a polysynaptic network of neurons & regulatory centers) located in the brainstem that controls vital functions, including consciousness. In clinical doses – they affect the function of nerve synapses rather than axons
They suppress the transmission of excitatory neurotransmitters (ACh) & enhance transmission of inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA) by interfering with transmitter release (presynaptic) and selectively interacting with receptors (postsynaptic)
Oxybarbiturate structure? Examples?
Structure: O2 on #2 Carbon atom
Examples: phenobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital, methohexital
Thiobarbiturate structure? Examples?
Structure: sulfur on #2 Carbon atom
Examples: thiopental, thiamylal
Sodium Thiopental properties
- onset = 30 seconds (high lipid solubility)
- dose = 3 - 6mg/kg for induction
- rapid awakening d/t redistribution
- highly protein bound (up to 86%)
- great affinity for fat (can lead to accumulation with large/repeated doses) --> doses should be calculated on IBW
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