Used to treat acute leukemia, brest cancer, head and nect cancer, lung cancer, osteosarcome, and non-hodkins lymphoma
%-FU and flosuridine are considered CCNS as well as CCS
General side effects: bone marrow suppression (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), stomatitis, N&V, alopecia, hepatic and renal dysfunction.
Stomititis is an early sign of toxicity and should be reported to the physician.
Inhibit protein and RNA synthesis and bind DNa, causing fragmentation.
Classified as CCNS drugs (Bleomycin is an exception and acts on the G2 Used for many cancers including leukemia, and many solid tumors.
Adverse Reactions:alopecia, N&V, stomatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Capable of causing vesication (blistering of tissue).
Lifetime does on bleomycin is 400units/m2
Mitotic Inhibitors (Plant Alkaloids)
Derived from natural products that are CCS and block cell division at the M phase of the cell cycle.
Adverse Reactions:leukopenia, allergic reactions, partial to complete alopecia, constipation, N&V, diarrhea, phlebitis, Damage peripheral nerve fibers and may cause reversible or irreversible neurotoxicity (decrease in muscular strength, numbness, tingling of fingers and toes, constipation, motor instability) Loss of deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, joint pain and bone marrow depression.
anticancer drugs packaged inside synthetic fat globules called liposomes
Fatty coating helsp the chemotherapy drug remain in system longer, decreases side effects (hair loss, N&V, cardiac tocicity,
Increases duration of therapeutic effects
antiinflammatory agents that suppress the inflammatory process that occurs as a result of tumor growth
may block steroid specific receptors receptors on the surface of cells, which slows the growth fraction of the tumor
AR: sense of euphoria, fluid retention, potassium loss, increased risk of infection, increase in blood sugar, increased fat distribution, muscle weakness, increased bleeding tendency
Estrogen, androgen (or hormone like agents
Slow the growth of hormone dependent tumors (prostate cancer, breast cancer)
Estrogen therapy is a palliative treatment used to decrease the progression of breast/prostate cancer
Progestins treat breast cancer, endometrial carcinoma, renal cancer - act by shrinking the cancer tissues - may cause fluid retention and thrombotic disorders
Androgens treat advanced breast cancer in premenopausal women - promotes regression of tumors - may cause masculine secondary sex characteristics
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues
Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists supress the secretion of FSH and lrteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland.
useful in treating men with hormone responsive prostate cancer that has metastasized
bind to androgen receptors and block the effects of dihydrotestosterone on the prostate cancer cells
block the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens, supressing the postmenopausal synthesis of estrogen and slowint tumor growth.
aument the natural ability of the immunie system
Cytokines - proteins in cells that use chemical signals to mediate immunity inflamation and hemotopoiesis, made by recomvinant DNA technology. Provide antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects that are used to combat cancer
Monoclonal antibodies - agents that recognize proteins on specific cancer cells
Vaccines - Hep B (liver cancer) HPV (cerical cancer