ARH4312

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ARH4312
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Midterm Late Renaissance Art
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ARH4312 Midterm
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  1. RINASCITA
    italian for rebirth
  2. CAPUT MUNDI
    description of Rome as the “capital of the world." In Renaissance Rome this would’ve been wishful thinking because it was in ruins compared to its glory days
  3. CAMPO VACCINO
    The Roman Forum had become a “cow pasture,” the reality of Rome
  4. WITALIA
    Greek name for Italy, meaning land of cattle
  5. JULES MICHELET
    History of France, 1855, 1st to use “Renaissance” as a term to describe a historic period
  6. JACOB BURKHARDT
    Swiss historian who defined the Renaissance as the period between the Italian painters Giotto and Michelangelo and characterized the epoch as nothing less than the birth of modern humanity and consciousness after a long period of decay
  7. ROMULUS and REMUS
    Legendary founders of Rome, Antonio Pollaiulo adds additions
  8. BOCCA VERITA
    a Roman manhole cover becomes the “Mouth of Truth”
  9. CARRARA
    north of Pisa, ancient source of the best marble quarries in the world
  10. TRAVERTINE
    the building stone of Rome, quarried near tivoli, inexpensive, porous marble substitute
  11. LIME-KILN
    symbol of the destruction of Rome, used to burn marble to make lime, melt down bronze, and recycle the old
  12. GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
    “to have great artists you must have great audiences” Have we lost the Renaissance?
  13. GIORGIO VASARI
    first art historian, fundamental source of information on Renaissance art and shaped attitudes about the period for centuries afterwards. Three Ages: 1. Antiquity 2. Barbarian Middle Ages 3. Renaissance Revival; believed that the Mid Ages was a period of decline and that the high level of perfection of classical antiquity was revived and set on its true path by Giotto.
  14. VANOZZA CATANEI
    had 4 children by Rodrigo Borgia (pope alexander VI) and was his principal lover; mother of Cesare, Lucrezia;
  15. LUCREZIA BORGIA
    had 3 marriages (religious diplomacy) , one at 13 that was annulled by her father Pope Alex. VI. 2nd at 20 to nephew of the king of Naples ended when her husband was killed in 1500 by his own bodyguard at her brother Cesare’s command; 3rd at 25 1501 with Alfonso Duke of Ferrara; ultimate temptress, pawn of her father and famous for poisoning people- historical legends; name conjures everything that was sinister and corrupt about the Renaissance
  16. ALEXANDER VI
    Rodrigo Borgia, Spanish, Pope 1492-1503, infamous reign of debauchery and intrigue: orders Savonrola’s execution in 1498; evil, most controversial Renaissance pope
  17. CARDINALE IPPOLITO D'ESTE
    son of Lucrezia Borgia and Alfonso d’Estate Duke of Ferrara; born and educated in France; richest and aristocratic cardinal of the time. Avid art collector and built the Villa d’Estate at Tivoli with Pirro Ligorio as his architect bc of his ties with the pope
  18. ERASMUS, IN PRAISE OF FOLLY-
    1509 philosopher who asks for clerical reform and translation of bible into vernacular (reforming the church from within)
  19. MARTIN LUTHER
    German biblical scholar who produces german vernacular bible in 1552. Opposed sale of indulgences, writes 95 theses in 1517 which attacked ecclesiastical abuses. Defended himself from papal attack, was supported by German princes and would be successful in establishing the Protestant church as a part of his reformation
  20. INDULGENCE
    the catholic church’s official selling of a full or partial remission of temporal punishment for sins which have already been forgiven/ way to guarantee a person’s way to heaven
  21. THEOCRACY-
    government by god; from Greek meaning “the rule of God” Church used art as a propaganda tool
  22. OLIGARCHY
    government by the few; Medici rule in Florence, Lorenzo de Medici decides on art diplomacy with Pope Sixtus IV rules by having Medici reps
  23. REPUBLIC
    government by the people, political phenomenon of small independent states (10th-15th century) Italy wasn’t a country until 1870
  24. NEOPLATONISM
    Intellectual way of merging Christian-pagan ideas; presents Plato and other ancient writers as forerunners of Christianity instead of advocates of paganism; says there’s a kinship and parallel paths to truth with Christianity; opposite of lime-kiln
  25. MARSILIO FICINO
    was the high priest of Neoplatonism in Florence; was an italian humanist scholar and philosopher who undertook a new translation of Plato’s work into Latin; defended Platonic philosophy in a Christian context; interested in mysticism
  26. BELLA MANIERA
    search for beauty, mankind is the measure of all things; the beautiful style; perspective; Rebirth of naturalism and the nude
  27. EDGAR WIND
    german-born british art historian who writes that humanism was not a repudiation of Christianity, but a reassuring confirmation of fundamental, proximate truth; showed that Plato and other ancients were in fact, pre-Christian forerunners
  28. COSIMO DE' MEDICI
    banker of Europe; gave $20 mil to build the 1st public library; humanist and individualist patron of the arts “father of his country”
  29. POPOLANI
    populists exile of Cosimo de Medici in 1) 1433-1434 2)1492-1512 3)1527-1530; Political Florence popular revolts sent the Medici family into exile
  30. MANIERA GRECA
    Byzantine traits; St. Francis; gold background, stylized, stiff, no gravity, no naturalism or landscapes popular in early Renaissance style
  31. MANIERA TEDESCA
    gothic (germanic) style; “pole people”, stiff, formal, denial of naturalism
  32. FRANCISCAN RADICALISM
    views all things in nature as important; religious basis for observation of nature; most popular saint in early Renaissance
  33. CIOMPI REVOLT, 1378
    “wool carders” workers in Florence revolt against salary cuts, labor unions, reflects an attitude of people standing up for salaries; defeated in attempt by conservative movement of guilds and medicis who were huge art patrons
  34. STIGMATA
    sign from god, St. Francis received the marks of the crucifixion
  35. FRATICELLI
    the name for the followers of St. Francis: The Little Brothers; took vows of poverty, obedience, chastity
  36. IL POVERELLO
    Franciscans took these vows of poverty, obedience, and chastity; St. Catherine of Sience and St. Francis are the patron saints of Italy
  37. THE PRINCE, 1513
    book by Machiavelli that reveals all about Renaissance politics; advocates virtu and that ends justify the means; played a role in anti-Medici movement. It’s best to be both feared and loved, but if you have to chose one: be feared.
  38. ARTE della CALIMALA
    guild of cloth finishers and merchants in foreign cloth, one of the biggest guilds in Florence; had a lot of power until the Medici family usurped much of the power in the 15th century; funded Ghiberti’s first bronze and large scale figure St. John the Baptist in the Orsanmichele
  39. SPINARIO
    boy with thorn in his foot; boy sitting pose in Brunelleschi’s door which is a throwback to 1st century b.c.
  40. GOTHIC QUATREFOIL
    clover leaf, 28 scenes 20 of Christ 8 lower panels of the evangelists (4 fathers of the church); as seen in the “great competition” between Lorenzo Ghiberti and Brunelleschi for the North Baptistry Doors of Florence
  41. PODESTÀ
    the highest magistrate of the Florence city council; central figure who runs things, serves one year and can have a plaque posted on the wall in the Palazzo (the oldest public building in Florence)afterwords- contains the bargello prison
  42. ORSANMICHELE
    guildhall of the labor movement in Florence; important for economics and labor unions (who were patrons of art); literally Kitchen garden of st. Michael; since the later 13th cent. The city grain market had been located here which was crucial to the stability of urban life-turned into church then a union building; located at the heart of Florence along an axis extending from the cathedral to the town hall; represents the intersection of economic, civic and religious life; each guild was assigned the task of filling the niches on the exterior with a freestanding statue of its patron saint
  43. ARTE della LANA
    wool/cloth manufacturers, one of the 3 richest in the renaissance period-successor of calimala; made a guildhall that links with the orsanmichele
  44. GIAN GALEAZZO VISCONTI
    Duke of Milan marches on Florence in 1402, but just as he arrives at the gates he dies-God protecting Florence? Symbolic of a message that God is on Florence’s side even though there was no military;Affirmation of art/society going in the right direction. Allowed for a rebirth of Renaissance because people blamed the black plague on the new, naturalistic art
  45. LADISLAUS
    King of Naples, attacks Florence in 1414, dies. Jesus will save the flock -God protecting Florence? Symbolic of a message that God is on Florence’s side even though there was no military;Affirmation of art/society going in the right direction. Allowed for a rebirth of Renaissance because people blamed the black plague on the new, naturalistic art
  46. PONDERATION
    weight shift
  47. VIRTU
    Renaissance ideal of civic duty
  48. RILIEVO SCHIACIATO
    flattened relief, low relief- revolutionary innovation of Donatello, and anticipates many of the pictorial innovations of Florence; as seen in St. George and Dragon Relief by Donatello
  49. QUATTRO SANTI CORNATI
    (4 crowned martyrs) four sculptors are famous for having crowns beaten onto their heads and being beheaded. Refused to carve for Diocletian pagan graven images. Calls citizens to be willing to sacrifice for Florence like they did in ancient times. The figures, by Nanni di Banco, are inspired antique sculpture and interact in a bold assertive way with one another. Became Republican models of ancient virtue of self-sacrifice
  50. OPERA del DUOMO
    rejected Donatello’s David and commissioned Donatello’s John the Evangelist; presently a museum
  51. PSYCHOMACHIA
    warfare of the soul, reality based tension; you are the missing spot in a grouping; real human emotions, moral judgements; Do we sacrifice ourselves? Big 3- Palazzo Vecchio, Orsanmichele, and Duomo
  52. PALIO
    Siena’s “World’s greatest horse race” on July 2 in the PIazza del Campo with riders from every contrade, or city wards
  53. CONTRADE
    different districts or sections of an Italian city, most notably the 17 of Siena that race in the Palio di Siena with a name, history, symbol, etc.
  54. PAOLO GUINIGI
    local merchant and tyrant in Luca; married 2nd wife Ilaria del Carretto 1406-8 who dies in childbirth; commissioned her tomb to Jacopo della Quercia as his earliest known sculpture in the form of a Roman sarcophagus
  55. GIOVANNI CAPONI
    restored Ilaria del Carretto in Lucca and sues James Beck for slander; removed much of della Quercia’s paint/patina
  56. JAMES BECK
    Renaissance art history professor at Columbia and watchdog of art restoration; world’s best scholar of Jacopo della Quercia and critic of restoration of Giovanni Caponi which he called a “disgrace, an incorrect, spic and span cleaning..”; goal of restoration should be to due no harm
  57. PATINA
    coloration of sculpture by paint or chemical change, aging, or dirt (eg Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia had it completely removed)
  58. CENOTAPH
    tomb marker without the body; bodies weren’t usually buried in cathedrals because of decay (eg Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia)
  59. ILARIA DEL CARRETTO
    2nd wife of Paolo Guinigi who died in childbirth and is famous for the tomb her husband commissioned for her; portrayed as a great mother and faithful (Fido on her cenotaph)
  60. INTERNATIONAL GOTHIC STYLE
    “manera greca” byzantine style characterized by decorative,exuberant, rich, gay and colorful cavalcades of figures. Opposed to Renaissance style, preferring the regal/decorative style of medieval courtly traditions to naturalism; validation of the rich (Adoration of Magi, Gentile da Fabriano-Magi are rich Florentine merchants following Giotto/Masaccio)
  61. PALLA STROZZI
    richest man in Florence, patron of Gentile’s Masterpiece: “the Magi”
  62. PREDELLA
    ledge below altar, with small scale paintings; meant to been seen by priests near the alter(eg Adoration of the Magi Alterpiece by Gentile da Fabriano- lefthand depicts the Nativity)
  63. FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI
    great architect of Italian Renaissance; lost the competition sacrifice of Isaac for the Baptistry Doors; big 3 of the Heroic age of the Renaissance; Dome of the Florence cathedral
  64. FELICE BRANCACCI
    Ambassador to Cairo until 1423 and patron of Chapel Cappella...; silk merchant=$ and enemy of the Medicis so he was exiled in 1435; theme of his chapel was salvation- Life of St. Peter; houses Masaccio’s Expulsion, Temptation, Tribute Money and fire burned Massolino’s ceiling in 1771
  65. MASACCIO
    literally “ugly tom”; lived only to 27; only 5 unquestioned works survived; considered 1st great painter (after Giotto) of the Renaissance; began new naturalistic style; rejected international style; style of simplicity and unity; first secular, rational, humanist of Renaissance
  66. CHIAROSCURO
    light/dark contrasts, used by Giotto then abandoned until Masaccio(seen in Masaccio’s expulsion on eve esp. In the Brancacci Chapel)
  67. PIETRO TORRIGIANO
    fights with Michelangelo, according to vasari when they where young artists copying the frescoes in the Carmine chapel (Brancacci chapel)and he disfigured Michelangelo’s nose
  68. VENUS PUDICA
    the modest venus/woman; false modesty (see Medici Venus, Uffizi)
  69. BUON FRESCO
    “true” water based painting on plaster
  70. SECCO FRESCO
    paint on dry plaster (added leaves from masaccio’s expulsion)
  71. TROMPE L'OEIL
    to fool the eye; use of linear perspective in paintings to create an optical allusion of 3d space (Masaccio- Trinity prime example)
  72. MEMENTO MORI
    reminders of death- I once was what you are, and you shall become what I am; (eg?)
  73. LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
    scientific way, new way of painting that explodes in the Renaissance; knowledge of mathematical proportion from Brunellischi would be vital to Masaccio’s use of the illusion of three dimensionality. His fresco of the Holy Trinity is the first to use this in Western art.
  74. ARS MORIENDI
    death education/arts: preparation for a good death (eg?)
  75. SAN MARCO
    Florence Dominican convent known for Fra. Angelico’s Decent from Cross, Annunciation which he painted on his return from Rome in 1450, and coronation of the virgin
  76. BEATUS
    Fra. Angelico was elevated to the status of “blessed” in 1984 which is the next step before sainthood.
  77. "SWEET STYLE"
    second Renaissance style; beyond naturalism: Lippi, Angelico; softer version of Masaccio, more serene.
  78. LUCREZIA BUTI
    2nd child with no dowry so she became a nun; Lippi’s mistriss/love- nun on the run; Lippi took her and 5 other nuns to escape the authorities; gives birth to Lippi’s son Filippino Lippi
  79. FILIPPINI LIPPI
    early works influenced by Masaccio; was chaplain to Santa Margherita in Prato from 1456, but had to leave bc of his affair with Lucrezia Buti scandal; they eloped and the Medici intervention saved him from further punishment; had a son who was a painter and a “family portrait” can be seen in his Madonna and child
  80. JACOPO DELLA QUERCIA
    Father was leading sculptor in Siena; married but no children survived; colorful life, well traveled, accused of theft, arrested for sodomy and embezzlement, but knighted in Siena; one of the earliest Renaissance sculptors (best known for his fountain for the public square)
  81. ALL’ANTICA
    ancient manner;attitude towards antiquity;from the Roman manner; degree of authenticity/authority (great example Ilaria del Carretto which was in the tradition of a roman sarcophagus)
  82. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI
    writer of the Prince, guide to politics, admirer of the ruthless; the “end justifies the means,” published in 1532; interested in creating an ideal society is not as important as preserving power.
  83. SIGISMONDO PANDOLFO MALATESTA
    anti-christian, evil prince of Rimini, builds temple to pagan gods; he was a feudal ruler and condottiere who is often regarded as the prototype of the Italian Renaissance prince; he was legitimized by the papacy but felt no loyalty towards it; Piero dello Francesca painted his portrait while he was in Rimini
  84. ISOTTA
    mistriss of Sigismondo Malatesta; smothers wife of Sigismondo; seen on the coin by Matteo Pasti
  85. GEMISTHUS PLETHON
    Greek pagan scholar; buried in Rimini under the orders of Malatesta
  86. PIUS II
    defiant Pope condemns Sigismondo to hell; summoned him to Rome for a trial for heresy and makes him the only person in history to be sent to hell while still alive
  87. JOHN VIII PALAEOLOGUS
    1438, Byzantine emperor who attended the council of Ferarra later known as the Council of Florence to discuss the union of orthodox and catholic churches; accompanied by Gemisthus Plethon
  88. AGOSTINO di DUCCIO
    Malatesta court sculptor, ruined David in Florence and Michelangelo and carves a great masterpiece from the “inferior marble”
  89. PONTIFEX MAXIMUS
    high priest or papal tomb in the manner of a Roman emperor
  90. OPUS RETICULATUM
    diamond, antique pattern (at the base of Alberti’s Palazzo Rucellai) that gives a feeling of tradition, stability and strength
  91. LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI
    appointed a papal secretary by Eugene IV; he studied antique monuments during his first stay in Rome, joined the papal court in Florence and become involved in the cultural life of the city; friend of Brunelleschi and Donatello. Secretary to six popes and in charge of the projects for rebuilding St. Peter’s Basilica; style of classical purity prepared the way for Bramante and others (as seen in the facade of the Church of San Francesco at Rimini)
  92. THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE 1453
    1453 The ottoman army sacs the city so the new center of the world is moved to Florence where an influx of brain power and libraries come to the city; Begins the appreciation of scientific beauty to Florence
  93. SCROLL VOLUTES
    transition of the facade of Alberti’s St. Maria Novella from aisles to the nave; symbolizes a an ancient text/scroll/manuscript which unifies the gothic and Renaissance styles; Alberti wanted to make the Church a place of thinking and intellect/temple of learning
  94. DE RE AEDIFICATORIA
    (1485)Alberti’s publication on Architecture; was the first printed work on architecture of the Renaissance; also wrote books on sculpture, family, government, and lit. It was based on his study of Vitruvius and antiquity
  95. VITRUVIUS
    1st century bc Roman architect and military engineer, famous as the author of the only complete architectural treatise to survive from antiquity; manuscript was rediscovered in Renaissance Italy and strongly influenced architects Alberti, Palladio and Michelangelo; rebirth and relearning the lessons of antiquity
  96. INCRUSTATION
    “zebra stripes”-tuscan style decoration- prato green marble and cararra whit; harmoniously proportioned and richly decorated with designs made out of colored marble; these geometric ornamental designs represent the elements of architectural orders; as seen in the Sta Maria Novella
  97. CANCELLERIA
    papal chancellery; earliest Renaissance palace in Rome for Cardinal Raffaele Riario, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman church; done by an unknown architect in 1489
  98. PIENZA
    modest village that Pius II was from and he decided to transform it into the 1st perfect town/ideal city, an admirable example of the humanistic period, and designed by Bernardo Rossellino; contains Piazza Pio II which incorporates Renaissance perspective and the town’s main axis is corso Rossellino lines with houses built by the nobility in the 14th century
  99. PARADISO
    area between duomo and baptistry; sacred entranceway to Florence and to Salvation
  100. GATES OF PARADISE
    Ghiberti’s east doors of the baptistry of the Florence Cathedral; Michelangelo gave name to the bronze doors which includes Jacob and Esau square; stories of the old testament with simplicity and clarity; statement of Florentine identity
  101. CANEPHORA
    ancient basket carriers on the head; example of all’ antiqua as seen in the Gates of Paradise in Jacob and Esau
  102. VITTORIO GHIBERTI
    metal sculptor who in his self portrait portrays himself with prominent facial features and wrinkled brow; famous for baptistry doors Gates of Paradise
  103. ARNO
    river that passes below the ponte vecchio in Florence Nov. 4, 1966: last flood of florence which damaged or destroyed millions of works of art and books
  104. PONTE VECCHIO
    bridge that was spared during WWII unlike the rest of the bridges in Florence (allegedly because of Hitler); over the Arno River in Florence; has the recent tradition of padlocks and lovers
  105. ADOLF HITLER
    failed art student; rejected twice from Vienna’s Academy of Fine Arts; wanted to make the world’s greatest art museum in Linz and Berlin filled with looted art treasures; his love may have saved much of the Renaissance art during WWII, allegedly saved the ponte vecchio in florence
  106. LINZ
    home of Adolf Hitler’s mother; he wanted to build a monument to her from 1938-9 having one of the world’s greatest art museums there filled with looted treasures from the rest of Europe during WWII
  107. VENUS FIXERS
    remarkable story of the Allied soldiers who saved Italy’s art during WWII; they would be the first to enter the wreckage after an attack
  108. HANS POSSE
    given the job to create a museum that would demonstrate German superiority; director of the Linz museum; made a list of works of art he wanted to steal from Europe
  109. GEHARD WOLF
    a “good nazi” who hid paintings and sculpture from being destroyed or stolen during WWII; honorary citizen of Florence
  110. CANTORIA
    singing galleries; by Luca della Robbia, ten marble panels in high relief with groups of children singing, dancing, and playing instruments,; taken down in 1688 by a rich bride
  111. GABRIELE PALEOTTI
    art police; priest in the 16th cent. drafted art guidelines (no unnecessary nudity) but church officials were often the worst offenders for profane work; played an important role in the council of Trent
  112. COUNCIL OF TRENT
    rules and regulations on art 1554-1563; tried to stop the secularization of art; conservative backlash of Renaissance
  113. PUTTO (pl putti)
    a figure of a human baby or toddler, almost always male, often naked and has wings as seen in Donatello’s Cupid or Annunciation
  114. AMORINO
    synonym for putto; spiritual beings mentioned in the bible; figure of a human child/toddler/mostly young boys often naked and with wings; Donatello’s Annunciation
  115. BARGELLO
    museum in Florence that has Donatello’s David; former prison that had the podestà and was the hq for Florentine police until it was transformed into a museum
  116. NUDE
    secure, posed for beauty; seen in Donatello’s David follows biblical story that David fought without clothing-doesn’t need armor with God’s protection; symbolizes Christian purity,virtue and innocence
  117. NAKED
    vulnerable, without clothing, pornographic- figures who are without power, without clothing and thus vulnerable
  118. MILLER VS. CALIFORNIA
    1973 Supreme Court legal definition includes community standards and must be without artistic redeeming value; thus by legal definition, art cannot be pornographic- lay definition: any figure without clothes (art v pornography)
  119. MILLER TEST
    the work taken as a whole; if it lacks serious literary,artistic, political, or scientific value; 1973 v California; supreme courts way of determining if something can be labeled as obscene (and therefore not protected by the 1st amendment and can be prohibited)
  120. CONTRAPPOSTO
    against the pose, see Donatello’s David; weight shift
  121. GATTAMELATA
    literally “honey cat” who was a condottiere, or mercenary soldier; famous for his military trick that didn’t work and was the first bronze equestrian statue cast since ancient times by Donatello; was captain-general of Venice during the republic’s wars with Milan with a reputation for resourcefulness, determination, and leadership
  122. BRONZE
    metal alloy, zinc, iron, copper lead mixture (Eg Donatello’s David or Gattamelata among so many others)
  123. LEONARDO BRUNI
    Florentine Chancellor, humanist; spent most of his mature years as papal secretary but in 1415 returned to Florence where he became secretary to the republic; wrote a book that calls for a de militia, or citizen army; had a model of civic virtue where he sought to reconcile Platonism with Christian doctrine in his History of the Florentine People; Neoplatonic (classism+civic virtue); His tomb by Rossellino- he requested a small slab tomb but it became a model for tombs of the Renaissance
  124. MARZOCCO
    Lion symbol of Florentine republic is adapted to Bruni’s coat of arms
  125. ARS BEREFT
    allegory of the arts grieve over loss of patron; Latin epitaph(inscription) held by two victories held by two victories was composed by his successor; notes that the Muses mourn his death in Bruni Tomb by Rossellino
  126. HUMANITAS
    Latin term for literary studies- very important for the rediscovery of classical antiquity during the Renaissance; cultivating the grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy
  127. SANTA CROCE-
    he place to be buried; the church of the Holy Cross, Leonardo Bruni, Michelangelo, Dante, Galilei was buried there in Florence
  128. SIR JOHN HAWKWOOD
    Giovanni Acuto- hired gun;famous English mercenary/condottiere in Italy; Leader of the body of English mercenaries known as the White Company and fought for any city, pope or prince until he became Commander and Chief of Florentine army, died in Florence and was buried in the Duomo but moved to England; known for being ruthless; seen in Paolo Uccello’s fresco of the recessed niche
  129. GIOVANNI ACUTO
    Italian name for Sir John Hawkswood- hired gun;famous English mercenary/condottiere in Italy; Leader of the body of English mercenaries known as the White Company and fought for any city, pope or prince until he became Commander and Chief of Florentine army, died in Florence and was buried in the Duomo but moved to England; known for being ruthless; seen in Paolo Uccello’s fresco of the recessed niche
  130. TERRA VERDE
    greenish monochromatic painting to look like bronze (the copper in bronze statues turns green); cheap way to look expensive as seen in Uccello’s portrait of Sir John Hawkwood
  131. CONDOTTIERE
    mercenary soldier, hired gun, contract soldier; common in Italy during the Renaissance; Sir John Hawkwood and Gatamalata are seen in prominent portraits during the Ren.
  132. GROTESQUE
    a 16th century decorative style in which parts of human animals and plant forms are distorted and mixed; found in Giotto’s work, approaching pornographic- exaggerated body parts; seen in Uccello’s work like Sir John Hawkgood
  133. CAPPUCCIO
    the citizen’s headgear; can define what party you’re affiliated with in battle; hats are a political statement- notably in Paolo Uccello’s Battle of San Romano with a Mazzochio on Niccolo da Tolentino
  134. MAZZOCCHIO
    headgear worn in 15th century Florence traditionally worn by the wealthy as seen on Niccolo da Tolentino=fearless commander with no helmet
  135. TRIPTYCH
    3 part panel painting, 3 pointed gothic arches, reference to tradition of the international gothic style; seen in Renaissance art like the St. Lucy Alterpiece by Domenico Veneziano
  136. PALLE
    golden balls, symbol of the Medici family reference to their coat of arms; shows there political power and can be seen throughout much Medici patroned art even symbolized with oranges:see ?
  137. SACRA CONVERSAZIONE
    sacred conversation; being in dialog with god, the viewer becomes a part of the scene; psychological linkage with the art and god:the depiction of the virgin and child among saints: see Fra Angelico and Lippi’s works
  138. ST. ZENOBIUS
    bishop of Florence; patron saint with John the Baptist of Florence; vasari said he brought oil painting to Renaissance, but gives no examples; seen in Domenico Veneziano’s St. Lucy Alterpiece

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