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2011-10-13 11:56:46

Midterm, Study Guide
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  1. Describe what Cooley means by the "Looking-Glass Self."
    Refers to the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
  2. Sociology is defined as the:
    Study of human interaction.
  3. Name 3 leadership styles.
    • Authoritative
    • Democratic
    • Laissez-Faire
  4. The agents of socialization are:
    Persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need top know in order to participate in society.
  5. According to the ___________ perspective, society is the sum of interactions of individuals and groups.
  6. __________ perspectives are based on the assumptions that groups are engaged in a constant power struggle for control of scarce resources.
  7. Sigmund Freud divided the mind into 3 interrelated parts, what are they? Define them.
    • Id - irrational, pleasure principle
    • Ego - rational, realistic thoughts
    • Superego - conscious
  8. Who do people believe to be the founder of Sociology?
    August Comte
  9. Name 3 early theorists.
    • Hariett Martineau (Feminist)
    • Herbert Spencer (Darwinism / survival of the fittest)
    • Karl Max (Work for what you want/need)
  10. What is material culture? Examples of material culture.
    • Items/things passed through generations of culture.
    • Examples: Houses, heirlooms.
  11. What is non-material culture? Examples.
    • Beliefs, values, attitudes passed through generations of culture.
    • Example: Religion.
  12. What is a symbol?
    Anything that respresents something else.
  13. What language is the most frequently spoke in the US? (other than English)
  14. What is Nature vs. Nurture?
    • Nature - your biological makeup
    • Nurture - your social setting
  15. Why is Socialization important?
    It enables us to develop our human potential and learn ways to are necessary for social living.
  16. Name a couple facts about suicide.
    • Suicide is the #1 leading cause pf death among teenagers.
    • In the US, suicide rates are highjest among men over 70.
  17. What are statuses?
    Status - a person's social standing.
  18. What is a role?
    Role - set of behavioral expections associated with a given status.
  19. What is a status set?
    All statuses a person occupies at a time.
  20. What is a status symbol?
    A material sign representing a person's status.
  21. Name a couple facts about homelessness.
    • Many homeless people work full time.
    • Homelessness has always existed in the US.
  22. What is Society?
    Large social group that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and cultural expectations.
  23. What is deviance?
    Any behavior that violates the norm.
  24. Define Socialization.
    Lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire self-identity and skills needed for survival in society.
  25. What are norms?
    Established rules of behavior.
  26. What is a crime?
    Actions that violate the law.
  27. What is a violent crime?
    Force or threat of force against others.
  28. What is Role Conflict?
    A situation in which incompatible role demands are places on a person by 2 or more statuses held at the same time.
  29. Define culture.
    The behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group. (Way of life.)
  30. Define Ascribed Status.
    A social position given at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes which the person has no control. (age, race, gender)
  31. Define Achieved Status.
    A social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
  32. What is an ingroup?
    A group to which a person belongs and feels a sense of identity.
  33. What is an outgroup?
    A group to which a person doesn't belong and may feel competitiveness or hostility.
  34. What is a category?
    A # of people who may have never met, but share the same characterisitics.
  35. What is a dyad? What is a triad?
    • A dyad is a group of 2.
    • A triad is a group of 3.
  36. What is a Primary Group?
    A small, less specialized group - dealing with emotions/family.
  37. What is a Secondary Group?
    A larger group engaging in impersonal activities.
  38. Define ethnicity.