Clin Path

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Clin Path
2011-10-18 00:22:52
Exam II

Exam II
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  1. Define:
    Hemogram or Erythrogram
    A record of the findings from an examination of the blood, especially w/ reference to the #s, proportions, and morphological features of the formed elements.

    includes the RBC count, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte indices.
  2. Define:
    • Decreased blood cell mass
    • Results in decreased PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte # below the refrance range.
    • PCV most commonly used as an interpretive value
    • Book: Decrease in O2- carrying capacity of the blood due to a decrease in #, Vol, or Hb content of RBCs
  3. Define:
    regenerative anemia
    • Blood smear evaluation will show: Macrocytosis, Polychromatic, Anisocytosis
    • Reticulocytes present in an effort from the bone marrow to increase RBC production and release.
  4. Define:
    nonregenerative anemia
    • Blood analysis will show defective or decreased erythropoiesis and lack of circulating immature RBCs
    • Bone marrow not responding sufficiantly
  5. Define:
    reticulocytes: aggregate and punctate
    • Reticulocytes are immature RBCs
    • Aggregate develope before punctate, have more have more ribosomes left over to stain
    • Punctate have only a few (<5?)
    • Cats have both kinds, only count aggs.
    • won't see in horses
    • Count to asses anemia
  6. Define:
    RBCs that have a faint to obvious blue tint, these are usually immature RBCs and if stained with the stain for reticulocites will aften be revealed as such.
  7. Define:
    Finding excess amounts of reticulocytes in the blood, could be a regenerative response to anemia
  8. Define:
    • The production of RBCs
    • bone marrow to systemic
  9. Define:
    • a.k.a. erythrocytosis
    • An increase in the #, Vol., and/or Hb content.
    • Can make blood more viscous slowing circulation and decreasing oxygenation
    • Absolute = increase in RBCs
    • Relative = loss of plasma vol.
    • Absolute Primary: polycythemia vera, slight increase in WBCs too normal RBCs
    • Absolute secondary: may be response to hypoxemia & erythropoietin stimulation (animals moved to higher elevation), heart failure, heart defects, thrombosis
  10. What portions of the hemogram and evaluated to determine anemia?
    • MCH (Mean Corpuscular Vol)
    • MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hb Concentration
    • PCV
    • Hb
    • indices
    • total proteine
    • reticulocytes
    • WBCs
    • RBC
  11. How would a regenerative anemia be identified on a blood smear?
    • Reticulocytosis, doing a reticulocyte count to determine if the bone marrow is responding adiquitely
    • polychromasia, NRBCs, anisocytosis, w/ increased MCV
  12. What common species have both types of reticulocytes?
    • Cats
    • Birds
  13. What are the typical causes of regenerative Animea?
    • Hemorrage - loss of blood
    • Hemolysis - destroyed RBCs
  14. What are the typical causes of nonregenerative anemia?
    • Nutrient Deficiency - no "building blocks"
    • Marrow Failure - Primary: outside of BM (kidneys) Secondary: toxic BM, neoplasia
  15. What species does not develop reticulocytosis?
  16. Why is the reticulocyte percentage corrected in dogs?
    To see how much faster than normal the animal is producing reticulocytes.
  17. What classification schemes are used to definitively Dx anemia?
    Morphological Classification - groups together anemias based on cellular size and Hb content
  18. What types of anemias are associated with defective erythropoiesis?
    • Primary: hypoplastic or aplastic anemia, may be due to marrow infection, toxins, neoplasia, or BM exaustion from overstimulation.
    • Secondary: Dz process outside the bone marrow
  19. Explain the relationship between the MCV and regenerative anemias.
    in regenative anemias the MCV should be up due to the immature RBCs which are larger than normal RBCs
  20. Define:
    Evaluation of the WBCs in systemic circulation
  21. Define:
    Defensive response of body tissues initiated by release of histamine from damaged cells.
  22. Define:
  23. Define:
    insufficiant or low
  24. Define:
    A condition in which there is more than the usual number of cells.
  25. Difine:
    • a higher than normal amount
    • a.k.a. -cytosis
  26. Define:
    Cell eating
  27. Define:
    Cell drinking
  28. Define:
    the phenomenon in which somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment.
  29. Define:
    left shift-degenerative and regenerative
    • Left-shift: where immature WBCs can be seen in the blood as more are produced.
    • Degenerative: Immature > mature
    • Regenerative: Immature <, = mature
  30. Define:
    • The Avian, Reptilian, and certain fish equivilant to the mammalian nutrophil.
    • Contains prominant eosinophilic granules
  31. Humoral immune response
    Immune response involving production of specific antibody
  32. Cellular immune response
    Immune system mechanism involving actions of the cells of the immune system rather than antibodies
  33. Monocytes
  34. Lymphocyte
  35. Neutrophils
  36. Basophils
  37. Eosinophils
  38. Where are the leukocytes produced?
    in the bone marrow
  39. Neutrophils in body defense?
    Neutrophils - attracted to chemicles released, phagoytosis, release enzyes to break down large particles- attracts other WBCs
  40. Eosinophils in body defense?
    • Drawn to Histamine
    • activated by paracites, attaches to and kills
    • can neutralize toxins
  41. Basophils in body defense?
    • May devolope receptors for allergens and release their granules when stimulated
    • ganules have histamine, dopamine, seratonin, heparin, peroxidase, & other enzymes
    • responsible for hypersensative allergi reactions.
  42. Lymphocytes in body defense?
    • 3 types - B, T, & null
    • B - antibody producing
    • T - cell mediated immune response
    • null - perhaps natural killer cells
  43. Monocytes in body defense?
    • Main phagocytes
    • Present items to lymphocytes
  44. What is the role of the leukocytes is initiation and mediation of inflammation?