GI System

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  1. pyloric sphincter
    opening of the stomach into the duodenum
  2. defacation
    evacuation of feces from the rectum
  3. peritoneum
    membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
  4. anorexia
    loss of appetite (orexia = appetite)
  5. aphagia
    inability to swallow
  6. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos = bag)
  7. buccal
    in the cheek
  8. constipation
    infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass(constipo = to press together)
  9. diarrhea
    frequent loose or liquid stools
  10. dyspepsia
    indigestion (peptein = to digest)
  11. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  12. eructation
  13. flatulence
    gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus = a blowing)
  14. halitosis
    bad breath (halitus = breath)
  15. hematochezia
    red blood in the stool (chezo = defecate)
  16. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  17. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  18. hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
  19. icterus
    yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)
  20. jaundice
    yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood (jaundice = yellow)
  21. melena
    dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
  22. nausea
    sick in the stomach
  23. sublingual
    under the tongue
  24. stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  25. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  26. gingivitis
    inflammation of the gums
  27. esophageal varices
    swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
  28. gastritis
    inflammation of the stomach
  29. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus, often as a result of abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter; causes burning pain in the esophagus
  30. pyloric stenosis
    narrowed condition of the pylorus
  31. peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
    a sore in the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria
  32. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
  33. colitis
    inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
  34. diverticulitis
    a by-way; an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
  35. dysentery
    inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools, most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g., amebic dysentery)
  36. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  37. hernia
    protrusion of a part from its normal location
  38. polyposis
    multiple polyps in the intestine and rectum with a high malignancy potential
  39. proctitis
    inflammation of the rectum and anus
  40. anal fistula
    abnormal tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)
  41. hemorrhoid
    swollen, twisted veins (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)
  42. hepatitis
    inflammation of the liver
  43. cirrhosis
    chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue, most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency
  44. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  45. endoscopy
    examination within a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the gastrointestinal tract to detect abnormalities and perform procedures such as biopsies, excision of lesions, dilations of narrowed areas, and removal of swallowed objects
  46. laparoscopy
    examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope--often including interventional surgical procedure
  47. colonoscopy
    examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
  48. stool occult blood study
    chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
  49. bariatric surgery
    treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines; procedures include restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food (baros = weight; iatric = pertains to treatment)
  50. colostomy
    creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon;performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions
  51. appendectomy
    excision of a diseased appendix
  52. gastric lavageoral
    insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment [e.g., to remove blood clots from the stomach and monitor bleeding (lavage = to wash)
  53. nasogastric (NG) intubation
    insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach for various purposes (e.g.,to obtain a gastric fluid specimen for analysis)
  54. antacid
    drug that neutralizes stomach acid
  55. antiemetic
    drug that prevents or stops vomiting
  56. antispasmodic
    drug that decreases motility in the gastrointestinal tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
  57. cathertic
    drug that causes movement of the bowels, also called a laxative
Card Set:
GI System
2011-10-15 18:13:50
GI System

GI System
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