Jarvis Ch.19 - Head & Neck Vessels

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Jarvis Ch.19 - Head & Neck Vessels
2011-10-13 18:54:12
Jarvis TWU

(TWU) Jarvis Ch.19 - Head & Neck Vessels
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  1. precordium
    the area on the anterior chest directly overlying the heart and great vessels
  2. base of the heart
    the top broader portion of the heart
  3. apex of the heart
    the bottom of the heart that points down and to the left
  4. pericardium
    tough, fibrous, double-walled sac that surrounds and protects the heart
  5. pericaridal fluid
    is located within the pericardium to ensure smooth, friction-free movement of the heart muscle
  6. myocardium
    the muscular wall of the heart that does the pumping
  7. endocardium
    the thin layer of the endothelial tissue that lines the inner suface of the heart chambers and valves
  8. atrium
    thin-walled reservoir for holding blood
  9. ventricle
    thick-walled muscular pumping chamber
  10. antrioventricular (AV) valves
    valves that separate the atria and the ventricles
  11. 4-chambers of the heart
    right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
  12. tricuspid valve
    the right AV valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle
  13. mitral (bicuspid) valvle
    the left AV valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle
  14. what happens to the AV valves during systole?
    the AV valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood back up into the atria
  15. chordae tendineae
    the collagenous fibers anchoring the valve's thin leaflets to the papillary muscles embedded in the ventricle floor
  16. what happens to the AV valves during diastole?
    the AV valves open to allow the ventricles to fill with blood
  17. semilunar (SL) valves
    valves that are set between the ventricles and the arteries
  18. pulmonic valve
    located on the right side of the heart, between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery
  19. aortic valve
    located on the left side of the heart, between the right ventricle and the aorta
  20. what happens to the SL valves during systole?
    they open to allow blood to be ejected from the heart
  21. what is the direction of blood flow begning from the liver?
    from the liver through the inferior vena cava into the right atrium (the superior vena cava drains blood from the head & upper extremeties into the right atrium); from the right atrium through the pulmonic valve to the pulmonary artery into the lungs; lungs oxygenate the blood; pulmonary veins drain the newly oxygentated blood into the left atrium; from the left atrium through the mitral valve into the left ventricle; the left ventricle ejects the blood through the aortic valve into the aorta; the aorta delivers oxygenated blood to the body
  22. caridac cycle
    rhythmic movement of blood through the heart made of two phases
  23. diastole
    cardiac phase in which the ventricle relax and fill with blood
  24. systole
    the heart's contraction phase in with blood is pumped from the ventricles and fills the pulmonary and systemic arteries
  25. atrial kick
    artial systole
    toward the end of diastole, the atria contract and push the last amount of blood into the ventricles
  26. first heart sound (S1)
    occurs with closure of the AV valves and signals the beginning of systole; can be identified as the first part of a pair of sounds (the lub in lub-dub); heart loudest at the apex
  27. guidlines to distinguish S1 and S2
    • 1. S1 is louder than S2 at the apex
    • 2. S2 is louder than S1 at the base
    • 3. S1 coinsides with the carotid artery pulse
    • 4. S1 coinsides with the R wave of an ECG monitor
  28. second heart sound (S2)
    occurs with closure of the semilunar valves and signals the end of systole; heard loudest at the base of the heart
  29. split S1
    is normal, but rarely occurs; the mitral and tricuspid components are heard separately in the tricuspid area/left lower sternal border
  30. split S2
    normal phenomenon that occurs toward the end of inspiration in some people; instead of one dub, a t-dub is heard; heard in the pulmonic valve area/second left interspace
  31. S3 and S4
    abnormal ventricular filling sounds occuring during diastole
  32. conditions resulting in a murmur
    • 1. velocity of blood increases (flow murmur) (e.g., in exercise, thyrotoxicosis)
    • 2. viscosity of blood decreases (e.g., in anemia)
    • 3. structural defects in the vavles (narrowed valve, incompetent valve) or unusual openings occur in the chambers (dilated chamber, wall defect)
  33. grade vi/vi murmur
    loudest, still heard with entire stethoscope lifted just off the chest wall
  34. grade v/vi murmur
    very loud, heard with one corner of the stethoscope lifted off the chest wall
  35. grade iv/vi murmur
    loud, associated with a thrill palpable on the chest wall
  36. grade iii/vi murmur
    moderately loud, easy to hear
  37. grade ii/vi murmur
    clearly audible, but faint
  38. grade i/vi murmur
    barely audible, heard only in a quiet room and then with difficulty
  39. sinoatrial node
    the pacemaker of the heart