vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-2-organic-molecules-to-end

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darlene.m.nelson
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108774
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vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-2-organic-molecules-to-end
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2011-10-13 17:33:22
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vet tech anatomy physiology chapter chemical basis life organic molecules end set
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vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 2 chemical basis for life organic molecules to end set
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  1. Organic Molecules
    • all contain carbon
    • carbon has 4 electrons in outer shell, making it ideal to form strong covalent bonds
    • chemical structure is rings, branched, chains
    • macromolecules - huge molecules
    • all are food
    • include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
  2. Carbohydrates function
    • energy
    • storage of energy - little bit in livers; glycogen (glucogen? sp?)
  3. Carbohydrates structure
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • (CH2O)n - tells how many units are put together
  4. Carbohydrates
    • water containing carbon
    • sugars, starches, cellulose
    • if word end in "ose", it's probably a carb
    • mental exertion makes you crave sugar, because brain can only use glucose
    • other tissues can use other sources of engergy
    • fructose tends to create cravings more than glucose
  5. Simple Sugars
    • monosaccharides
    • 3-7 molecules in a chain
    • primary fuel for the body
    • glucose and fructose are the biggies
  6. Glucose
    • hexose sugar (6 carbons)
    • pentose sugar (5 carbons)
  7. Isomer
    • mirror image
    • eg glucose, fructose
  8. Disaccharides
    • created by a dehydration synthesis reaction between two monosaccharides
    • anabolism
    • eg glucose + fructose = sucrose (sugar) + water
    • broken down into glucose and fructose by adding water
    • hydrolysis
    • catabolism
  9. Dehydration synthesis
    synthesis reaction that produces a water molecule
  10. Anabolism
    process of building up
  11. Hydrolysis
    process of breaking down by adding water
  12. Catabolism
    process of breaking down metabolically
  13. Polysaccharides
    • created through dehydration synthesis
    • contain many monsaccharides
    • cellulose - plant walls
    • glycogen - fuel storage in body, primarily liver
  14. Carbohydrates as compounds
    • carbs can be used to build things
    • glycoproteins
    • glycolipids
    • play an important part in cell recognition in living systems
    • glycocalyx - thin layer on plasma membrane in cell; plays an important part in self-recognition
  15. Lipids
    • cheese analogy - have common characteristics, but also differences (runny, hard, formed)
    • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    • four classes - neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanids
  16. Neutral fats
    • triglycerides or fats
    • made of glycerol
    • fatty acids
    • hydrophobic
  17. Fatty acids
    saturated and unsaturated
  18. Saturated fatty acids
    • all bonds in carbon chain are single allowing maximum hydrogen bonding
    • solid at room temperature
    • eg butter, lard
  19. Unsaturated fatty acids
    • some carbon bonds are double decreasing amount of hydrogens available to bond
    • usually liquid at room temperature
    • eg olive oil, flaxseed oil
  20. Trans fats
    • partially or wholly hydrogenated and oxygenated
    • solid at room temperature
  21. Lipoprotein
    • compound containing lipid and protein molecules
    • allows for lipids to be transported through the blood stream
    • since blood is basically water, lipids would adhere to vessel wall and block it
    • protein surrouns lipid to carry/escort it through the blood
  22. Phospholipids
    • cheese analogy - like brie cheese
    • glycerol backbone
    • 2 fatty acid chain - tail of molecule
    • one phosphate group (PO4)
    • - hydrophillic
    • - termed head of the molecule
    • - line up in two layers to create the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membranes of animals
  23. Steroids
    • cheese analogy - Kraft singles
    • lipids composed of 4 interlocking rings
    • hydrophobic
    • non-polar
    • contain little oxygen
    • helps form bile salts and hormones
    • without fat in diet, can't make estrogen and period will stop
  24. Bile salts
    • liver
    • - Grand Central
    • - detoxifies everything brought in
    • - facilitates observation of fat by producing bile (as a salt)
    • - bile is stored in gall bladder, squirted into intestines as needed and excreted as pigment in stool
    • gall stones - salts come out o fsolution and crystallize
    • gall bladder disease - eg blocked bile ducts; stool will get lighter and lighter until it is white
  25. Eicosanids
    • eico - greek for twenty
    • composed of 20 carbon fatty acid and a ring
    • important mediators in inflammation, clotting and mucus production
    • mediators of pain - if stop production, won't feel pain; note that pain still happens
    • include:
    • prostoglandins - cramping of smooth muscle
    • leukotrines - Advair targets these; blocks production
    • thromboxane
  26. Proteins
    • backbone of life
    • most abundant organic molecules
    • really, really critical
    • highly temperature sensitive
    • most products of cell other than hormones are proteins
    • enzymes
    • contain oxygen, carbon, NITROGEN
    • composed of long carbon chains called amino acids (more than 100 amino acids)
    • develops a 3 dimensional structure
    • sequence (comes from DNA) of amino acids determines the function of the protein
    • nitrogen is eliminated from the body through the urine (NH4) is ammonia
    • BUN - measures amount of nitrogen in blood
  27. Protein functions
    • widest variety of function:
    • - cell structure - everything inside phospholipid bilayer is proteins
    • - body tissue structure - eg skeleton
    • - control chemical reactions - catalysts
    • - regulate growth
    • - defend the body from invaders - antibodies
  28. Amino acids
    • 20 amino acids in the body
    • share similar structure
    • - amino group (NH2)
    • - carboxyl group (COOH)
    • - side chain (radical) R
    • -- defines (identifies) the amino acid
    • -- can be quite complex
    • linked together to form proteins via dehydration synthesis - product is water and CO2
    • determined by DNA
  29. Peptide bonds
    bonds between carboxyl groups of amino acids
  30. Dipeptide
    2 amino acids
  31. Tripeptide
    3 amino acids
  32. Polypeptide
    • 10 or more amino acids
    • 2 dimensional/flat
  33. Structure of protein
    • determines function
    • - fibrous - make long chains of things, eg clay snake
    • - globular - make other stuff, eg china bowls, plates, figurines
    • 4 levels of organization - primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
  34. Primary structure of protein
    • number and sequence of amino acids
    • different mixture to make bricks vs porcelain
    • bricks can be lots of different shapes, but they can't be porcelain
  35. Secondary structure of protein
    • cause 3 dimensional shape by weak hydrogen bonds between amino acids
    • 2 ways protein can fold - Alpha helix or Beta pleated; which depends on intial structure
  36. Tertiary structure of protein
    • folds again
    • this structure is destroyed when protein is denatured
    • heat denatures; that's what makes burns and high fevers dangerous
    • overall shape of a single protein molecule
    • - inner area is hydrphobic
    • - outer area is hydrophilic
    • - held in place by disulfide and hydrogen bonds
  37. Quaternary structure of protein
    • 2 or more protein molecules join to form a macromolecule
    • eg need lots to make a muscle
    • some proteins must form a macromolecule to work
  38. How the body uses protein
    structural and functional proteins
  39. Structural proteins
    • long and stringy - eg gristle on meat; tendons
    • water insoluble
    • stable and rigid
    • add strength to tissues and cells
    • fibrous proteins
    • - collagen - eg tendons
    • - fibrin
    • - keratin
    • Elmer's glue - hoof and hon of Elmer the bull, boiled down collagen and keratin
  40. Functional proteins
    • globular
    • water soluble
    • flexible
    • chemically active - tend to get used up in reactions
    • globuar proteins
    • - hemoglobin
    • - antibodies
    • - enzymes - always end in "ase"
  41. Enzymes
    • special kind of protein
    • act upon substrates
    • have specificity - like key for specific lock
    • lock and key action
    • allow for complex chains of reaction within the cell, eg like making shoes from a whole cow
    • speed up reaction, but are not involved in it
  42. Nucleic acids
    • found in nucleus
    • largest molecule in the body
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
    • - addition of phosphorus takes it out of protein group
    • - addition of nitrogen takes it out of lipid group
    • DNA and RNA
    • made up of nucleotides
  43. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • in nucleus and mitochondria
    • instructions for building proteins
    • - genes - discrete bits of matter
    • 2 parallel strands of nucleotides
    • hydrogen bonds
    • double helix
  44. RNA
    • ribonucleic acid
    • transfers instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    • eg designer (DNA) doesn't go to factory to tell how to make the shoes, tells foreman & foreman does it
    • builds the proteins with the help of other cell organelles
    • one strand of nucleotides
    • 3 types
    • - ribosomal (rRNA)
    • - transfer (tRNA)
    • - messenger (mRNA)
  45. Mitochondria
    • DNA inside comes from mom
    • it doesn't change (other than occassional mutation)
    • can trace maternal line back all the way
  46. Nucleotides
    • building blocks of nucleic acids
    • - nitrogenous base
    • - pentose sugar
    • -- deoxyribose (DNA) - no O2 removed
    • -- ribose (RNA)
    • - phosphate group (PO4)
    • 5 nucleotides - Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine (DNA only), Uracil (RNA only)
    • all are ringed
    • bond with each other to form nucleic acids
    • bonds form between the sugars and phosphate groups
    • this leaves the nitrogenous bases available for metabolic activity
    • 3 nucleotides code for one amino acid
    • eg letters (nucleotides) make words (amino acids), words make sentences (polypeptide chains)
  47. Gene
    sequence of nucleotides that code for one polypeptide chain
  48. Chromosome
    • long chain of genes combined with proteins
    • in any given cell, some part of the DNA is blocked, eg salivary glands dont make neurotransmitters
  49. Cellular energy
    • adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • high energy bond broken to produce:
    • - ADP and PO4
    • - AMP and PO4
    • - cellular respiration - produces ATP in mitochondria of cells
    • - ATP is a RNA nucleotide containing adenine and two additional phosphate groups

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