vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-3-cell-anatomy

Card Set Information

Author:
darlene.m.nelson
ID:
108775
Filename:
vet-tech-a-p-1-ch-3-cell-anatomy
Updated:
2011-10-13 17:41:48
Tags:
vet tech anatomy physiology chapter amazing cell set
Folders:

Description:
vet tech anatomy physiology 1 chapter 3 the amazing cell anatomy set
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user darlene.m.nelson on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The cell
    • basic unit of life
    • single or complex
  2. Characteristics of the cell
    • grow
    • develop
    • reproduce
    • adapt
    • respond to stimuli
    • maintain homeostasis
    • convert food info useable energy
  3. Cells
    • contain genetic material
    • capacity to specialize
    • enormously diverse
    • work collaboratively to form tissues
    • CS Lewis - The Lives of Cells
  4. History of cells
    • 3 billion years old
    • primordial ooze + electrical impulse = organic molecules
    • organic molecule organized into primitive cells
    • resemble present day bacteria
    • - DNA (single strand)
    • - protoplasm
    • we can make proteins, lipids, molecules
    • we can make cells, but we can't make life
    • Holy Grail of biology is finding life and understanding it
  5. Prokaryotes
    • very primitive, but actually quite sophisticated
    • pre-nucleus
    • DNA free floating in protoplas
  6. Bacterial prokaryotes
    • develop pili
    • can probe cytoplasm of another one and will share DNA
    • share genetic material
    • resultant strain of cholera tracked through the system
  7. Eukaryotes
    true nucleus - DNA bound by a plasma membrane (nuclear membrane)
  8. History of Cell Theory
    • 1665 - Robert Hooke - saw cork under microscope, named them cells
    • 1800 - Mathias Schleiden - plant
    • 1800s - Theodor Schwann - animal tissue; all life is composed of cells
    • 1858 - Rudolf Virchow
    • - cells can only arise from pre-existing cells
    • - ends "spontaneous generation" theory of life
    • - plants have cellulose - rigid
    • - microscope inventor; saw bacteria
  9. Cell Theory
    • cell size - avg 10-30 microns
    • limiting factors:
    • - surface area to volume ratio
    • -- cells have to eat - if too big cannot move food in, waste out
    • -- small cells are more efficient
    • - governing capacity of the nucleus
    • -- one nucleus can control a small cell most efficiently
    • -- large or highly active cells may have more than one nucleus
    • -- if cell gets too large, nucleus loses control
  10. Cell membrane
    • plasma membrane
    • plasmalemma
    • external boundary of the cell
    • governs the movement of atoms and molecules in and out of cell
    • composed of protein, phospholipids, cholesterol and carbohydrates
    • proteins are like stud in wall
    • - globular can be porous like portals
    • - peripheral proteins (like coconut on munchkins)
  11. Plasma membrane
    • plasmalemma
    • external cell boundary
    • not visible with light microscope
  12. Plasma
    anything formed or molded
  13. Cell membrane components
    • internal membrane surface
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • external membrane surface
  14. Phospholipid bilayer
    • strucural proteins
    • globular proteins
  15. Structural proteins
    strengthen bilayer
  16. Globular proteins
    • integral
    • peripheral
  17. Integral globular proteins
    • span the width of the bilayer
    • act as channels
    • -- gated
    • -- pores
  18. Peripheral globular proteins
    • found on the inside or outside of the membrane
    • on inner surface
    • - act as anchors for:
    • -- cytoskeleton
    • -- keratin
    • on outer surface:
    • - attach to sugar groups
    • -- glycoproteins
    • -- glycolipids
    • external surface
    • - glycocalyx
    • -- cell-to-cell adhesion; cell have to know what to stick to
    • -- intercellular recognition
    • -- activation of cell functions
    • --- cell adhesion molecules
    • --- membrane receptors
  19. Cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
    • cover surface of mammalian cells
    • allow cells to bond to each other and extracellular molecules
    • signal circulation cells to area of infection and inflammation
    • chemicals in glycocalyx that signal
    • in eyes, glycocalyx holds mucus on eyes - tears are liquid but stay attached to eye surface
  20. Membrane receptors
    • integral proteins and glycoproteins that act as binding sites on the surface of cells
    • - contact signaling
    • -- cell mediated immunity
    • - chemical signaling
    • -- ligands
  21. Extensions of the plasma membrane
    • identical in structure to the plasma membrane
    • - centrioles = basal bodies
    • - inner surface of plasma membrane
    • - push outward
    • cilia and flagellum
    • - controlled by centrioles
  22. Cilia
    • short
    • numerous
    • move synchronously
    • create waves of motion that move mucus, cell debris
    • location
    • - upper airways
    • - oviducts
    • mammalian reproduction
    • - ovary not connected to fallopian tubes
    • - cilia encourages eggs to go down fallopian tubes
    • - if not, wind up in peritoneal cavity; will cause ectopic pregnancy if fertilized
  23. Flagella
    • long
    • single
    • propulsion
    • uncommon in mammals
    • - sperm only
    • common in microbes (single-celled organisms)
    • mammalian reproduction
    • - sperm are the only flagellated cells in mammals
    • - forwardly mobile - looks like a snowstorm
  24. Cytoplasm
    • has only been described for 10 years
    • there are still elements that are only postulated (can't yet see with microscope resolution available)
    • cytosol - solution in the cell
    • - viscous (thick)
    • - semitransparent
    • - site of metabolic activities within the cell
    • cytoskeleton
    • organelles
    • inclusions
  25. Cytoskeleton
    • flexible, fibrous structure that changes with cell function
    • provides
    • - support and shape
    • - movement
    • - direction for metabolic activity - like roads for the organelles to line up on
    • - anchors organelles
  26. Fibers in cytoskeleton
    • 3 different types (from book - says 3, lists 4)
    • - Proteins - made of amino acids; form 3 dimensional complex shapes
    • - microtubules
    • - intermediate fibers
    • - microfilaments
    • - microtrabeculae - extremely small - only postulated
  27. Microtubules
    • thickest fiber
    • hollow tubes
    • act as anchors for organelles
    • proteins allow organelles to move along the microtubules
    • - tubulin
    • - organelles move kind of hand over hand along the microtubule
    • exist all over the cell
    • they don't move
  28. Intermediate fibers
    • woven - ropelike
    • toughest
    • most permanent
    • name for the cells they're found in or for proteins they're composed of
    • - tonofilaments
    • -- keratin in epithelial cells
    • -- give strength to cell junctures
    • - neurofilaments - in neurons
  29. Microfilaments
    • arranged in bundles and meshes
    • found near the plasma membrane
    • composed of actin and myosin
    • allow shape change (contraction)
    • assembled where and when needed
    • - no cell moves constantly
    • WBCs use these when called to injury/infection
  30. Microtrabeculae
    • all this is postulated only
    • lattice that connects other cytoskeleton components
    • - like a spiderweb over all the other filaments
    • give cytosol its viscosity
  31. Organelles
    • literally, little organs
    • membrane bound
    • - most have phospholipid monolayer, some bilayer
    • specialized function
    • no glycoclayx - unlike plasma membrane
    • creates separate internal environment - like rooms in a building
    • metabolic processes include:
    • - food absorption
    • - energy production
    • - excretion
  32. Types of organelles
    • mitochondria - like furnace room
    • ribosomes - part of kitchen
    • endoplasmic reticulum - part of kitchen
    • Golgi apparatus - part of kitchen
    • lysosomes - garbage chutes
    • peroxisomes - garbage chutes
    • inclusions - gift shop
  33. Mitochondria
    • produces ATP
    • ATP = cell energy
    • uses glucose (CHO2 - preferred fuel)
    • changes O2 to CO2
    • cellular respiration
    • if no glucose available, fatty acid then amino acid catabolism
    • respiratory electron transport
    • oxidative phosphorylation
    • oxidative reactions of the citric acid cycle
    • CHO2 => CO2 + water + energy = cellular respiration
    • ketones vs CO2 + water for fatty acid and amino acid catabolism, also diabetics (ketoacidosis)
    • number of mitochondria relates to activity level of cell
    • - 1 or 2 in mature bone
    • - crammed full in muscle cells of Olympic athelete
    • divide by fission - takes lots of protein
    • congregate at sites of energy need
    • contain DNA, RNA, proteins
    • motile - along microtubules
    • two membranes
    • - inner - cristae
    • - inside - matrix of enzyme rich fluid - Kreb's cycle happens here
  34. Ribosomes
    • most common organelle
    • 2 globular subunits containing a globular reactive protein and ribosomal RNA
    • cell maintenance
    • site of protein synthesis
    • free ribosomes
    • - attached to the cytoskeleton
    • - produce proteins used within the cell
    • those bound to endoplasmic reticulum
    • - produce proteins used in the cell membrane and exported
    • - eg saliva, tears, thyroid hormones, estrogen
    • everything wears out and need to the replaced or repaired
  35. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • single lipid bilayer
    • continuous with the nuclear membrane and the Golgi apparatus
    • flattened tubes stacked on one another
    • 2 types: rough, smooth
  36. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • has ribosomes
    • protein production
    • finished proteins move internally to the cisternae
    • move on the the Golgi apparatus for packaging for export out of the cell
  37. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • no ribosomes
    • makes lipids (phospholipids and steroids), generally for internal purposes
    • connected to the rough ER
  38. Kreb's cycle
    • every turn of Kreb's cycle gets you 2 ATP
    • fairly complex chemical reaction
    • this is why you need O2 and H2O
  39. Golgi apparatus
    • similar in structure to ER
    • flattened tubes containing cisternae
    • proteins (usually around the tertiary stage of folding) arrive from the ER, then...
    • ... are modifed within the Golgi (additional functional groups are added)
    • sugar groups are synthesized and added
    • end product goes into vesicles to world outside cell
    • you can see this happening
  40. Lysosomes
    • formed by the Golgi apparatus
    • contain hydrolytic enzymes (protein)
    • digests cell nutrients and bacteria
    • autolysis
    • exocytosis
  41. Hydrolytic
    breaking down by addition of H2O
  42. Autolysis
    lysosome breaks open and digests everything in the cell
  43. Exocytosis
    • profiles measure this "garbage" in blood
    • high BUN => kidneys not effectively removing it or not excreting it
  44. Peroxisomes
    • created by fission
    • common in liver and kidney
    • act to detoxify various molecules
    • remove free radicals
    • contain 2 enzymes that break down radicals:
    • - peroxidase
    • - catalase
  45. Free radicals
    • groups hanging off proteins/carbs can fall off
    • can chemically interact with cells detrimentally
  46. Inclusions
    • everything else in the cell that is not an organelle
    • membrane bound
    • - secretory granules - generally cell product waiting to be used/shipped
    • - vesicles - contain liquid
    • - vacuoles - contain gas
    • non-membrane bound
    • - lipid droplets - small amount of fat
    • - fat globules - large amount of fat
  47. Centrioles
    • hollow cylinders composed of microtubules
    • paired
    • located at the centrosome
    • active in cell division
    • - only time they do anything
    • - produce the spindle fibers (probably actin)
  48. Nucleus
    • largest organelle
    • "brain"
    • contains DNA
  49. Nucleus functions
    • primary one - control cellular activity through protein synthesis
    • secondary - maintian hereditary information of the species
  50. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • contains hereditary information
    • directions for protein synthesis
  51. Multinucleated cells
    • large, active cells
    • skeletal muscle
  52. Anucleated cells
    • mammals
    • - red blood cells - erythrocytes
    • other vertebrates
    • - birds, reptiles - nucleated RBCs
  53. Nuclear anatomy
    • 4 parts
    • - nuclear envelope or membrane
    • - nucleoplasm
    • - chromatin
    • - nucleolus - source of RNA, ribosomes; assume there are microtrabeculae here too
  54. Nuclear membrane (or envelope)
    • double phospholipid bilayer
    • - outer layer continuous with ER
    • - nuclear pores - allow things to enter and exit
    • - perinuclear cisterna - space created by membranes
    • - proteins similar to ones in plasma membrane
  55. Nucleoplasm
    • similar to cytoplasm/cytosol, has no cytoskeleton
    • contained within the nuclear membrane
  56. DNA, RNA and chromatin
    • Rosalind Franklin
    • - x-ray crystallography
    • - double helix
    • James Watson, Francis Crick
    • - Nobel prize for structure in 1962
  57. DNA and RNA structure
    • composed of nucleotides
    • gives enormous flexibility
    • important as different proteins will affect medicines - how they work, reactions to them
  58. Nucleotides
    • nitrogenous bases
    • - adenine
    • - guanine
    • - cytosine
    • - thymine - DNA only
    • - uracil - RNA only
    • backbone of:
    • - phosphate group
    • - five carbon sugars
    • -- deoxyribose - DNA
    • -- ribose - RNA
  59. Chromatin
    • composed of DNA and histones
    • nucleosome = 1 strand of DNA + 8 histones
    • nucleosomes are linked together by linker DNA
    • histones are important in gene regulation
    • chromatin is the mechanism that keeps DNA from getting tangled
    • when it is time to make a protein, unspools the section of DNA that contains instructions for that protein
    • the way you spool/unspool DNA is as important as what's in your DNA
    • the ER makes the histones for internal use (in the cell)
  60. Nucleoli
    • occur within the nucleus
    • not membrane bound
    • site of ribosomal subunit synthesis and ribosomal RNA synthesis

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview