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dome -shaped muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen
external intercostal muscles
most superficial muscles between ribs, fibers in a �hands-down� position
internal intercostal muscles
deep to external intercostals, fibers in �hands-up� position
innermost intercostal muscles
deep to internal intercostals, fibers more horizontal
transversus thoracis muscles
finger-like muscle on the deep surface of the anterior thoracic wall, it is part of innermost intercostal layer
- intercostal vein, artery and nerve
- runs in the costal groove of ribs; may be seen coursing through the middle of the intercostal space on the posterior thoracic wall
internal thoracic vessels
lateral to the sternum on both sides, internally
- visceral pleura
- serous membrane intimately attached to the lungs
serous membrane adhering to the inside of the thorax, superior surface of the diaphragm, and lining themediastinum
medistinal parietal pleura
pleura lining the mediastinum, it contacts the fibrous pericardium
costal parietal pleura
pleura lining the inside of the ribe cage
diaphragmatic parietal pleura
pleura covering the diaphragm
apical/cervical parietal pleura
pleura forming dome-like shape over the apex of the lungs(this is also called the �cupola� � which refers to �little dome�)
space between the parietal & visceral pleura
- diaphragmatic inferior surface of lung close to diaphragm
- costal surface in contact with ribs
- mediastinal medial surface that faces mediastinum, contains root of lung structures
superior aspect of lung, projects above rib 1
root of the lung
- structures entering or leaving the lung
- pulmonary a.
- left lung � pulmonary a. is superior to main bronchus
- right lung � pulmonary a. is anterior to bronchus
- pulmonary v.
- left lung � pulmonary v. is anterior & inferior to bronchus
- right lung � pulmonary v. is anterior & inferior to pulmon. a.
- main bronchus
- left lung � bronchus is inf. to pulmonary. a.
- right lung � bronchus is post. to pulmonary a.
- posterior to the trachea & heart
- posterior to the trachea
network of nerve fibers on the esophagus
sympathetic chain ganglia or trunk
courses on the lateral sides of the vertebral column
greater thoracic splanchnic ns.
courses inferomedially from the sympathetic trunk,immediately posterior to the heart
courses posterior to root of the lung toward esophagus
anterior vagal trunk
on the anterior surface of the esophagus immediately superior to the diaphragm
ascends on the ant. surf. Of vertebral bodies, post. to the esophagus, then arches over the root of the lung on the right side of the body to enter SVC
runs between the azygos v. and the aorta on the anterior surface of the vertebral column
descending (thoracic) aorta
descends inferiorly to the left of the esophagus
- IVC opening in diaphragm where IVC passes through
- Esophageal opening in diaphragm where esophagus passes thru
- Aortic opening in diaphragm for aorta (DO NOT ID)
tributaries that unite superior to the right side of the heart to form the SVC
superior vena cava (SVC)
located along the superior right margin of the heart
continuation of the ascending aorta (at the T4 level)
brachiocephalic a. (or trunk)
1st branch of aortic arch (most to the right)
left common carotid a.
2nd branch of aortic arch (betw/ brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian a.)
left subclavian a.
3rd branch of aortic arch (most to the left)
runs anterior to the root of the lung structures
left vagus nerve
courses inferiorly over the arch of the aorta
left recurrent laryngeal n.
branches from l. vagus; hooks around aortic arch
deep to the pulmonary trunk and as., T4-T5 level
primary (or main) bronchi
two main branches of the trachea that extend from tracheal bifurcation and help form root of lung
between pulmonary trunk and aortic arch