psychology2.txt

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RoflGun
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108824
Filename:
psychology2.txt
Updated:
2011-10-13 22:07:41
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psychology
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Psychology Unit 2
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  1. memory
    the nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
  2. change blindness
    the common failure to notice large changes in environments
  3. encoding
    the processing of information so that it can be stored
  4. storage
    the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event
  5. retrieval
    the act of recalling or remembering stored information to use it
  6. modal memory model
    the three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory
  7. sensory memory
    memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form
  8. chunking
    organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
  9. long-term memory
    the relatively permanent storage of information
  10. serial position effect
    the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle
  11. implicit memory
    the system underlying unconscious memories
  12. explicit memory
    the processes involved when people remember specific information
  13. declarative memory
    the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared
  14. episodic memory
    memory for one's personal past experiences
  15. semantic memory
    memory for knowledge about the world
  16. procedural memory
    a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
  17. prospective memory
    remembering to do something at some time in the future
  18. retrieval cue
    anything that helps a person (or other animal) recall information from memory
  19. encoding specificity principle
    any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience
  20. consolidation
    a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
  21. reconsolidation
    neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
  22. spatial memory
    memory for the physical environment; it includes things such as location of objects, direction and cognitive maps
  23. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    a mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
  24. forgetting
    the inabiliity to retrieve memory from long-term storage
  25. transience
    the pattern of forgetting over time
  26. proactive interference
    when prior information inhibits the ability to rmember new information
  27. retroactive interference
    when new information inhibts the ability to remember old information
  28. blocking
    the temporary inability to remember something that is known
  29. absentmindedness
    the inattentive or shallow encoding of events
  30. amnesia
    deficits in long-term memory that result from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma
  31. retrograde amnesia
    the condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information
  32. flashbulb memories
    vivid memories for the circumstances in which are first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotionally arousing event
  33. source misattribution
    memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory
  34. cryptomnesia
    a type of misattribution that occurs when a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source
  35. suggestibility
    the development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
  36. source amnesia
    a type of amnesia that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information
  37. confabulation
    the false recollection of episodic memory
  38. memory bias
    the changing of memories over time in ways consistent with prior beliefs
  39. mnemonics
    strategies for improving memory

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