RT 110 midterm stuff

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fongpay03
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RT 110 midterm stuff
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2011-10-21 16:47:25
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RT 110 midterm stuff
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  1. List particulate radiation
    • Beta
    • Electrons
    • Alpha
    • Neutrons
  2. What % of medical radiation is responsible for radiation exposure today?
    Roughly about 50%
  3. The amount of energy absorbed becomes the absorbed dose which is measured in what?
    Rads or Grays
  4. What is this called when the beam interacts with tissue?
    Attenuation
  5. Attenuation can occur thru what types of effects?
    • Absorption (photoelectric effect)
    • Scatter (compton effect)
  6. Does absorption (photoelectric effect) occur in the outer shell or inner shell electron?
    Inner shell electron
  7. Does scatter (compton effect) occur in the outer shell or inner shell electron?
    Outer shell electron
  8. Radiation produced in the tube and traveling is called the...
    Primary beam
  9. The higher the kVp, the _____ absorption to occur. less or more?
    Less
  10. The higher the kVP, the ____ scatter to occur. less or more?
    More
  11. What are the three basic components of reducing radiation exposure?
    • time
    • distancing
    • shielding
  12. When should the radiologic technologist be exposed?
    During fluoroscopy exams
  13. For the inverse square law, as the distance doubles, what happens to the exposure factor?
    It decreases by a factor of 4
  14. What is skin erythema dose and how many rads does it take to get skin erythema?
    • How much exposure it takes before the skin turns red
    • 300-600 rads
  15. What is Roentgen?
    • Unit of exposure in air
    • How much air is being ionized
  16. What is REM?
    • radiation equivalent man
    • any exposure that produces the same biologic effect as 1 rad of x-radiation
    • occupational exposure
    • weighting factors
    • equals sieverts
  17. What is Rad?
    • absorbed dose
    • what the patient gets
    • depends of types or tissues
    • equals grays
  18. 100 rads = __ gray
    1
  19. 100 rems = __ sievert
    1
  20. X-rays are a __ LET form of radiation. (low or high)
    low
  21. List these from lowest quality factor to highest quality factor (the higher, the more dangerous). x-ray photons (beta particles and gamma photons), thermal neutrons, fast neutrons, alpha particles
    • x-ray photons (beta particles and gamma photons)-1
    • thermal neutrons-5
    • fast neutrons-20
    • alpha particles-20
  22. Radiation weighting factors are based on?
    • RBE-relative biologic effectiveness
    • They take into account specific cells and tissues
    • For diagnostic radiography weighting factors are used
  23. What takes into account that different types of radiation are more dangerous than others and applies a radiation weighting factor to them? Equivalent dose or effective does?
    equivalent dose
  24. What takes into account that different types of tissues are more sensitive than others and can potentionally cause more damage when irradiated? Equivalent dose or effective does?
    effective dose
  25. Low energy LET cause most damage thru _____ (indirect or direct) effect and is therefore _______ (repairable or irrepairable)?
    indirect; repairable
  26. High energy LET are ____ (more or less) destructive that low LET radiation?
    more
  27. Low LET x-rays have a ____ (low or hight) probability of interacting with DNA?
    low
  28. OER is less with ___ (low or high) LET radiation?
    high
  29. OER is higher with ___ (low or high) LET radiation?
    low
  30. When the x-ray photon strikes the DNA molecule directly, is this a direct or indirect effect?
    direct
  31. When the photon strikes a water molecule and creates an ion pair, this is called?
    Radiolysis of water
  32. List 2 types of free radicals that result from radiolysis of water
    • hydrogen peroxide
    • hydroperoxyl radical
  33. When the x-ray photon strikes a water molecule which then produces a free radical which then strikes the DNA this is called? (direct or indirect?)
    indirect
  34. Point mutation commonly occurs with ___ (low or high) LET
    low
  35. What is the main factor for the target theory?
    • DNA is the target.
    • the DNA molecule is hit and inactivates the cell which then will most likely die
    • If you hit the DNA, something is going to happen
  36. When cells die without attempting cell division is called?
    Apoptosis
  37. When cell death occurs after cell division, this is called?
    Mitotic death
  38. When mitosis occurs after missing a division cycle, this is called?
    Mitotic delay
  39. What is the lethal doese for humans?
    300-400 rads; 3-4 grays
  40. The lethal dose is expressed as LD _/_? What does the first number represent and what does the second number represent?
    • 50/60
    • The first number is percentage of effect (death in people)
    • The second number is how many days for the effect to occur
  41. Radiation protection uses a linear _______ curve. Non-threshold or threshold?
    • Non-threshold
    • Any radiation has the potential for problems
  42. Non-stochastic effects are based on a ______ curve. non-threshold or threshold? They are also called? Deterministic or probabilistic?
    • Threshold
    • Deterministic
  43. Nausea, fatigue, erythemia, and epilation are types of early non-stochastic, late non-stochastic, early stochastic, or late stochastic? What are these symptoms classified as?
    • Early non-stochastic
    • ARS-acute radiation syndromes
  44. What are the three stages of ARS?
    • Prodromal (flu-like symtoms)
    • Latent (symptoms will resolve or be dormant)
    • Manifest (present with many symptoms. You got problems)
  45. What are three types of ARS?
    • Hematopoietic-100-1000 rads
    • GI-600-1000 rads
    • Cerebrovascular-Up to 5000 rads. Death in 2-3 days
  46. Cataracts, fibrosis, organ atrophy, and decreased fertility are types of early non-stochastic, late non-stochastic, early stochastic, or late stochastic?
    Late non-stochastic
  47. Cancer and genetic defects are types of early non-stochastic, late non-stochastic, early stochastic, or late stochastic?
    late stochastic
  48. Stochastic effects are based on a ______ curve. Non-threshold or threshold? They are also called? Deterministic or probabilistic?
    • Non-threshold
    • Probabilistic
  49. Radiation within 10 days of pregnancy will result in?
    A miscarriage.
  50. The embryo is most sensitive during organogenesis which is from _ weeks to _ weeks. This will result in an embryologic effect.
    2 weeks to 8 weeks
  51. The occupational MPD is __ mSv, __ rem, __ mrem annually.
    • 50 mSv
    • 5 rem
    • 5000 mrem
  52. The pregnancy MPD is __ mSv, __rem, __ mrem monthly.
    • 0.5 mSv
    • 0.05 rem
    • 50 mrem
  53. The pregnancy MPD for the entire pregnancy is __ mSv, __ rem, __ mrem.
    • 5 mSv
    • 0.5 rem
    • 500 mrem
  54. The public MPD is __ mSv, __rem, __ mrem.
    • 1 mSv
    • 0.1 rem
    • 100 mrem
  55. The educational MPD is __ mSv, __rem, __ mrem.
    • 1 mSv
    • 0.1 rem
    • 100 mrem
    • Same as the public MPD
  56. Radiation hormesis is?
    The potential that small radiation exposure is actually beneficial
  57. Collimator and light field is +/- __% of the SID
    2%

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