SLS 460 Midterm Part 2

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SLS 460 Midterm Part 2
2011-10-14 04:36:03
SLS 460 Midterm Part

SLS 460 Midterm Part 2
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  1. Minimal Pair
    • words differ only by single sound in same position in both words
    • e.g. sheep /ʃiyp/ and ship /ʃɪp/
  2. Phoneme
    • sound differences that distinguish words
    • e.g. /b/ and /p/ in English
  3. Allophone
    • sounds that are perceptibly different but do not distinguish words
    • e.g. [p], [pʰ], and [p̚] in English
  4. Positional variation
    • the particular allophone or variety of any given phoneme that is produced depends on where it occurs in a given word
    • e.g. [p] following an initial /s/as in spin
    • [pʰ] in initial position as in pat
    • [p̚] in final position, as in cup
  5. Voicing
    • Voiced: vocal cords are vibrating (e.g. /s/, /p/, /t/, etc.)
    • Voiceless: vocal cords are not vibrating (e.g. /z/, /b/, /d/, etc.)
  6. Aspiration
    • brief puff of air accompanying allophones of /p, t, k/ in words like pan, tan, and key
    • occurs at beginning of words and stressed syllables in English (e.g. peal and rePEAL)
  7. Flap
    produced like /d/ except tongue touches or flaps against alveolar ridge only very briefly

    • occurs after vowel or /r/ and before unstressed
    • syllable, in same environment as /d/, across word boundaries when vowel in following word is stressed, e.g. “put it on” and “head it in”

    e.g. data, city, putting, dirty, started, catty, caddy, latter, ladder
  8. Consonant clustering
    • 2 or more consonants occur in sequence in syllable-initial or syllable-final position
    • - word-initial positions --> clusters of 2 or 3 in consonants (CC or CCC)
    • o clusters of 2: either 1st sound /s/ or 2nd one is an approximant /l/, /r/, /w/, or /y/
    • ex. CCVC --> /sneyk/ snake
    • o cluster of 3 consonants --> 1st sound is always /s/, 2nd sound is voiceless stop (/p, t, k/) and 3rd sound is one of the 4 approximants (/l, r, w, y/)
    • ex. /spl-/ splash
    • /skw-/ square
    • /sky-/ skew
    • final position consists of 2, 3, or 4 consonant clusters --> result of adding plural /s, z/or past tense /t, d/ to stem ending in 2 or 3 consonantso
    • ex. CC: /-rd/ bird
    • o CCC: /-rkt/ parked
    • o CCCC: /-rlds/ worlds-
  9. Resyllabification
    • simplification strategy
    • break up final consonant cluster when followed by word beginning with vowel sound
    • - final consonant of cluster is moved over to the next syllable
    • - part of final cluster + initial vowel
    • ex. She moved it. /ʃi-mu(w)v-dɪt/
    • (simple vowels: vowels without an accompanying glide movement as in bed or put)
    • - /ɪ, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, ʊ, ʌ
  10. Vowel w/ glide
    vowels accompanied by /y/ or /w/, as in pain /ey/ or stone /ow/
  11. Diphthong
    • vowels consisting of a vowel sound followed by a nonadjacent glide within the same syllable, as in boy
    • - /ay, aw, ɔy/
  12. Tense
    • articulated with more muscle tension
    • - often tense vowels are accompanied by a glide in English
  13. Lax
    muscles more relaxed
  14. Open syllable
    syllables without a final consonant sound, as in tea, may, law, hoe, zoo- V, CV, CCV
  15. Closed syllable
    • syllables ending in a consonant, as in team, main, pop, lawn, hole, zoom
    • - occur in monosyllabic words or when stressed (him, met, hand, fun, put)
    • - a consonant is always needed to close a stressed syllable with a lax vowel (cannot appear in open syllables)
  16. Nasalized
    • velum partially open during the vowel sound
    • - nasal consonants precedes vowel --> slight degree of nasalization
    • - nasal follows a vowel --> a greater degree of nasalization occurs
    • - nasal precedes & follows a vowel --> greatest degree of nasalization occurs
  17. Reduced vowel
    • vowels in unstressed position articulated at the word and phrase level
    • /ə/ “schwa”
    • /ər/ “r-colored schwa”
    • Other reduced vowels(less common)
    • /i/= city; /ɪ/= music;/o/= narrow; /u/= into