Translation

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Author:
cshumaker
ID:
108888
Filename:
Translation
Updated:
2011-10-14 16:30:45
Tags:
tRNA genetic code
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Description:
Biochemistry of translation
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  1. What are the stop codon sequences?
    • UAG
    • UAA
    • UGA
  2. Codons that designate the same amino acid; usually differ in only the third base of the codon
    synonyms
  3. tRNAs to which a specific amino acid has been covatlently attached
    aminoacylated/charged tRNAs
  4. Enzymes that activate amino acids and attach them to the 3' terminal adenosine of their tRNA
    aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
  5. the attachment of an amino acid to its appropriate tRNA requires this
    ATP
  6. Mutation in which the codon containing the changed base codes for a different amino acid
    missense mutation
  7. Mutation in which the codon containing the changed base codes for a termniation codon
    nonsense mutation
  8. The codon is found on the ____; the anticodon is on the ____
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
  9. Hypothesis that the third base of the codon can form alternate base pairs with the 1st base of the anticodon in the tRNA. This is the reason we don't have 64 tRNAs
    wobble hypothesis
  10. organelles with their own ribosomes
    • mitochondria
    • chloroplasts
  11. First event in protein synthesis in prokaryotes
    formation of a 30S initiation complex
  12. What do you need to form the 30S initiation complex?
    • strand of mRNA
    • initiation factors
    • GTP
    • 30S ribosomal unit
    • fmet-tRNAf
  13. enzyme that adds a formyl group to the amino group of methionine that is attached to the tRNAf to form N-fmet-tRNAf
    transformylase
  14. 30S ribosomal unit binds to this sequence in the mRNA, which lines up the initiator codon to bind with the initiator tRNA
    Shine-Dalgarno sequence
  15. 2 sites on the ribosome that tRNA can occupy
    • A site (amino site)
    • P site (peptide site)
  16. the empty site that tRNAs are delivered to
    A site
  17. catalyzes the formation of the peptide bond
    peptidyl transferase
  18. energy cost per peptide bond
    cleavage of 4 phosphate bonds
  19. an mRNA with many ribosomes attached
    polyribosome
  20. cleaves the signal sequence from the protein in the ER lumen
    signal peptidase
  21. halts the transfer of a protein across the membrane and functions as a membrane-binding sequence
    stop-transfer signal
  22. - used to treat heart infections
    - acts by inhibiting the initiation of protein synthesis by preventing fmet-tRNAf from binding at the P site
    Streptomycin
  23. a wide-range antiobiotic that acts by inhibiting the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs by binding to the 30S ribosomal unit
    tetracyclin
  24. wide-range antibiotic that binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits the peptidyl transferase reaction
    chloramphenicol
  25. antiobiotic that inhibits the translocation reaction by binding to the 50S subunit
    erythromycin
  26. mechanism of action of diptheria toxin
    • ADP-ribosylation of eEF-2
    • inhibits the translocation step of elongation
  27. protein produced by castor beans
    Ricin

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