HazMat Ch.4

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  1. What are the 3 states of matter?
    • 1. Gas
    • 2. Liquid
    • 3. Solid
  2. Define Flashpoint
    Minimum temperature at which a liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mix with air near it's surface; will flash but not continue to burn
  3. Define Firepoint
    enough vapors are present to support continuous burning
  4. Define autoignition
    • initiate self sustaining combustion w/out ignition source
    • example gasoline AIT 536F, Flashpoint -45F
  5. Define explosive limits
    • lower- lowest % of the substance in air that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present
    • upper-highest %
    • note- products with low LEL and products with most range are most dangerous
  6. Define vapor pressure
    pressure excerted by a saturated vapor above its liquid in a closed container/ higher temp > VP lower temp<VP
  7. Define boiling point
    • temp at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure
    • note* flammable materials with low boiling points special fire hazards
  8. Define BLEVE
    Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
  9. Define sublime
    Changing directly from a solid into a gas without going to a liquid state
  10. A majority of gases have a vapor density greater than 1, name the gases lighter than air
    • Hyrdogen, acetlyne, helium, ammonia, methane, illuminates, carbon monoxide, ethylene, nitrogen(hahamicen)
    • or
    • Hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, helium, hydrogen flouride
    • methane, ethylene, diobrane, illuminates, arbon monoxide
    • acetylene, neon, nitrogen, ammonia
  11. Define solubility
    In water expressing the % of a material that will dissolve at ambient temperature

    • Hydrocarbons=non-soluble(gas,diesel) remain seperate
    • Polar-solvents=soluble(alcohols) combine easily
  12. Define specific gravity
    The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material at standard conditions, for example a volume of a substance weighs 8lbs and an equal volume of water weighs 10lbs, the material is said to have a specific gravity of .8
  13. Define miscability and immiscability
    • Miscibility is the degree or readiness to which 2 or more gases or liquids are able to mix with or disolve into each other
    • 2 that mix in are miscible, 2 that dont are immiscible
  14. What is the reactivity triangle?
    consists of an oxidizing agent, an activation agent and a reducing agent
  15. What is polymerization?
    Chemical reaction in which a catalyst causes simple molecules to combine to form long chain molecules; reaction can be violent
  16. Gembo
    • General Emergency Behavior Model
    • used to help first responders understand how a hazmat is likely to behave in any given situation
  17. Hazmat incidents usually follow in this sequence?
    • 1. Stress
    • 2. Breach
    • 3. Release
    • 4. Dispersion/Engulfment
    • 5. Explosive/contact
    • 6. Harm
  18. Container stress is
    • classified as stimulus causing strain or pressure or deformity.
    • 25% of all hazmat incidents due to container failure
  19. Types of Stress(3)
    • Thermal- excessive heat or cold
    • Chemical- uncontrolled reactions of contents; may be result of corrosive action or chemical attack on incompatible container
    • Mechanical-Physical; crushing, scoring, gouges
  20. Types of container Breach(6)
    • 1. Disintegration-general loss of integrity, bottle breaking, grenade
    • 2. Runaway cracking-develops after some damage;can go quickly; commonly assoc. w/ bleve
    • 3. Attachments break-fail open, or break off
    • 4. Puncture-mechanical stress
    • 5. Split or tear-welded seam
    • 6. Corrosion-
  21. What are the 4 types of release?
    • 1. Detonation-instanteous and explosive release
    • 2. Violent rupture-immediate release caused by runaway cracks
    • 3. Rapid relief-fast release through damaged valves, piping etc
    • 4. Spill/leak-slow release
  22. Types of Dispersion/Engulfment(7)
    • 1. Hemispheric- semi-circular or dome shaped; generally formed by rapid release
    • 2. Cloud-Ball shaped pattern
    • 3. Plume- Irregularly shaped pattern; dispersion of a plume affected by vapor density
    • 4. Cone-Triangular shaped
    • 5. Stream-surface following pattern of liquid HazMat
    • 6. Pool-3D; slow flowing dispersion
    • 7. Irregular-indiscriminate deposit of a HazMat
  23. Exposure or contact refers to
    • 1. People
    • 2. Environment
    • 3. Property
  24. Exposure contacts are associated with 4 general time frames, what are they?
    • Immediate-milliseconds; deflagration/explosion
    • Short-term-minutes, hours; gas vapor cloud
    • Medium term- Days, weeks; lingering pesticide
    • Long term-years, generations; radioactive source
Card Set
HazMat Ch.4
Chemical Properties and Hazmat behavior
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