memory/learning psych

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  1. Memory
    the process by which information is encoded, stored and retrieved
  2. Explicit memory
    the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information ex remember phone number, address etc Effortful
  3. Implicit memory;
    memory in there due to doing over and over again-flip a switch when walking into room
  4. Three stages Explicit memory;
    encoding, storage& retrieval
  5. Encoding;
    how we take information in so that it can be recalled later using explicit memory
  6. Storage;
    with explicit memory- how we store information so we can recall it later
  7. Retrieval;
    how we retrieve information we have stored previously
  8. Three types of explicit memory;
    short term, sensory and long term
  9. Sensory explicit memory;
    brief lasts less than 1 second
  10. George Sperling did an experiment—what and why?; presented with array of letter, asked them to identify all, subject
    reports 3 or 4, then tone used to tell subject which row to recite, typically they could recall almost all items in row regardless of row-tells us You’re encoding more info than u realize but it leaves the memory store faster than it can be retrieved
  11. Short term explicit memory
    lasts approx 18 seconds-holding small amount of information in an active readily available state
  12. How big in short term memory
  13. STM test
    have to report back digist/ letters forward
  14. Working memory
    acive maintenance of / manipulation of info in short term storage ex give letters/ digits have to put digits in ascending then letters in alphabetical order
  15. What experiment was used to demonstrate concept of interference?
    student give phone number but had to count back from 100 by 7 before repeateing phone number-couldn’t
  16. what is way to increase amount remembered?
  17. Long term
    capapacity for holding info for long period of time
  18. Long term memory encoding factors
    structural phoenetic and semantic-semantic best
  19. Structural
    Is the word in captial letters?
  20. Phonemic
    Does the word rhyme with weight
  21. Semantic
    Would the word fit the sentenece
  22. LTM retrieval factors;
    recall and recognition-easier to recognize
  23. Transfer appropriate processing;
    memory performance depends on the process at encoding matching the process at retrieval- better match=better remember, rhyming lead to better memory on rhyming test aka how teach self
  24. Encoding specificity principle
    the more similar context at retrieval is to context at encoding, the better memory will be-study on land=test better in land vs water aka environment used
  25. Episodic;
    collection of past personal
  26. Sematic
    network of associated facts and concepts
  27. Classical vs operant conditioning
    Operant deals with you interacting in some way-you feel effect and then change behavior
  28. The visual store is called?
    an Icon.
  29. Learning
    processes by which experience contributes to relatively permanent changes in the way organisms mentally represent their environment.
  30. Classical conditioning:
    leads organisms to anticipate events; Pavlov
  31. Operant conditioning:
    Person learns to engage in a certain behavior-through punishment and reinforcement
  32. Law of effect
    responses that lead to rewards are probably repeated; those that lead to discomfort are less likely. The effect of the behavior tells the person something about how that behavior fits in.
  33. Fixed ratio OC Reinforcement
    Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made (book clubs, freebie, credit cards)
  34. Variable ratio OC Reinforcement
    Reinforcement is delivered based on a particular average number of responses (sales: get paid for every 10 shirts on average washed and ironed, but not for each 10th shirt)
  35. Fixed interval OC Reinforcement
    Reinforcements are presented at fixed time points, provided the appropriate response is made (do little work until just before mid-terms . . . Extrinsic motivation)
  36. Variable interval OC reinforcement
    Reinforcements are made based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement (radio promo giveaways)
  37. Continuous OC reinforcement
    Reinforcements are presented after each and every response
  38. Shaping:
    learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior
  39. Operant
    response operates on the environment.
  40. Reinforcement:
    occurs when any stimulus or event increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
  41. Positive reinforce
    events that appear after the operant that increase probability of operant behavior occurring. EXAMPLES: smiles, rewards, desirable is presented
  42. Negative reinforce
    • removal of something unpleasant to strengthen operant. (THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS PUNISHMENT)
    • EX- You’re forced to hear loud, screeching noises. Suppose that there is a Barney doll. When you hug the Barney doll, the screeching noise stops. So you do it again. Undesirable is removed
  43. Examples of negative reinforcement
    • escape conditioning: make responses to end an aversive stimulus-faking sprained ankle while running to stop
    • avoidance conditioning: make responses to avoid exposure to an aversive stimulus-making excuses to avoid having to speak if fear of public speaking
  44. Punishment:
    occurs when any stimulus or event decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
  45. Positive punishment:
    something undesirable is presented-spanking
  46. Negative punishment:
    something desirable is removed-bed without dinner
  47. observational learning:
    the organism is influenced by observing others.
  48. Watson’s Little albert experiment
    • TABULA RASA; Classical conditioning
    • baby shows no fear-when sees burning newspaper or white rat; Then he put white rat and made clanging=>Eventually albert feared all furry things
    • UCS- clanging
    • UCR-fear
    • CS-furry
    • CR-fear/crying
  49. Object permanence
    for babies, out of sight is out of mind.
  50. Egocentric
    thinking about things only as you see them can’t take other people’s perspective
Card Set:
memory/learning psych
2011-10-15 05:20:23
psych memory

psych e2 memory
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