Gram Negative Cocci

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Gram Negative Cocci
2011-10-14 19:37:49
Case Study

Case Study
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  1. N. gonorrhoea
    General Information
    • Nonmotile
    • Gram negative cocci
    • Catalase+
    • Oxidase+
    • Ferment glucose
    • STD- carried in nasopharynx, anus, genital tract
  2. N. gonorrhoea
    Lab ID
    • Gram stain of pus/urethral discharge (95-100% effective)
    • Gram stain of cervical sample (50-60% effective)
  3. Selective & NonSelective Media
    • Selective: Thayer-Martin Agar
    • Non-Selective: Chocolate Agar

    (Slow incubation time in lab: 36-48 hours)
  4. Biochemical Tests of N. gonorrhoea
    • Detection of acid produced from glucose
    • Oxidase test
    • PCR genetic probes
  5. Disease of N. gonorrhoea
    • Inflammation of genital organs
    • Males: primary concern is urethritis
    • Females: Often asymptomatic, but can cause problems later: pelvic inflammatory disease, filopean tube scarring, infertility

    If enter bloodstream: dermatitis, arthritis
  6. STDs often coinfections
    ghonorhea & chlamydia often occur together
  7. N. gonorrhoea Virulence Factors
    • Pilli
    • Lipo-oligosaccharide
    • Transferrin (chelate iron)
    • IgA protease
    • por, opa, & rmp proteins on outer membrane
  8. Treatment of N. gonorrhoea
    • No vaccine
    • Penicillin resistant
    • Use ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, oflaxin
  9. N. meningitidis
    General Information
    • Gram negative diplococci
    • Enhanced growth in carbon dioxide
    • Detected in blood or spinal fluid
    • Aerosol transmission
  10. Disease of N. meningitidis
    • Red dots on skin
    • Menengitis- High number of neutrophils in cerebral spinal fluid (acute bacterial meningitis)
    • *Aseptic meningitis- will find lymphocytes (not neutrophils) in cerebral spinal fluid
    • Transmission: person to person
  11. N. meningitidis Virulence Factors
    • Pilli
    • Intracellular pathogen
    • Endotoxin
  12. Treatment of N. meningitidis
    • Penicillin
    • If on campus, treat roommates with prophylaxis rifampin
    • Also quadravalent vaccine required at some schools
  13. Distinguishing between N. gonorrhoea and N. meningitidis
    • Oxidation Tests
    • N. gonorrhoea oxidizes glucose
    • N. meningitidis oxidizes glucose AND maltose