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What does lifespan psychology focus on?
the ways that indivuals change and how they stay the same.
What is a quanititative change?
- a change in the amount or number of something.
- i.e. height, weight, age, number of words that you know.
What is qualitative change?
- Change in teh underlying structure or organization of a particular ability.
- i.e. going form bein g a non walker to being a walker.
What 3 kinds of changes can you expect to see from individuals?
- physical -- body and brain growth & motor skills
- cognitive -- memory use and skill development
- psychosocial -- emotional development, personality development
What were Baumrind's 4 different parenting styles?
What is an authoritarian parenting style?
- Control and obedience are emphasized.
- It's my way or the highway
- Tends to span generations i.e. if the parent does it the kid will do it.
What is a permissive parenting style?
- laissez faire
- hands off
- I am going to over respect the rights of the child because it isn't my place ot impose rules on them.
What is a neglectful parenting style?
- no consideration for the child
- basically ignores child
What is an authoritative parenting style?
- Set ruel structure, but the child is given considerable amount of respect.
- maximal control for child while still having an external rules structure.
What are the 3 ways that prent react to misbehavior in children?
- Pwer assertion
- Withdrawal of love
What is the most effective way to react to misbehavior in children?
What is power assertion?
- Taking away privileges
What is withdrawal of love?
What are the 2 categories of play?
- Social play
- Cognitive play
What defines social play?
- interacting with another child
- engaged in activites within close proximity to another child playing
what defines cognitive play?
- mental development
- playing with block
- pretend play
What is one of the most important acts that a kid can do?
What is self estreem?
global evaluation of self
When does the first self realization occur?
around 18 months
what does the first self realization mark the beginning of?
what does cephalocaudal mean?
- head to tail
- development occurs from top down
what does proximodistal mean?
development formt he center out
What can you expect to see from a child as they move out of infancy and into childhood?
- more slender
- stronger bones
- rapid loss in appetite
children should take a nap until they are how old?
5 years old
What is fast mapping
process in wich a kid absorbs the meaning of a word after hearing it in context a ocuple of time.
When does social speech devlop?
toward the end of infancy
When do children generally understand the fundamentals of conversation?
5 years old
What is the best thing you can do to encourage language development in childre?
What are the 3 stages of development of language?
- Pre-Linguistic Speech
- Linguistic Speech
- Telegraphic Speech
What is telegraphic speech?
- 18 months to 2 years
- first limited sentence usage
- based on noun and verb combinations
what is linguistic speech?
- 10-14 months
- first spoken word
what is a holophrase?
- single word used to express an entire thought.
- a child's new signal to get needs met.
what is pre-linguistic speech?
- crying, babbling, cooing
- prior to first word
Who viewed the mind as tabula rasa, or a blank slate?
Was Locke more nature or nurture?
- Very much nurture.
- The experiences that we have in the environment is what creates the individual.
In what four ways does the environment shape the mind?
- Rewards & Punishments
What did Lock mean by associations?
when we experience events together we learn that they are related to each other.
foundation for classical conditioning
What did Locke mean by repetition?
The mroe we do something the easier it becomes to do.
foundation for cognitive psychology
What did Locke mean by imitation?
- We learn by observing.
- you will become what you surround yourself with
Foundation for Bandura's social observational learning.
What did Locke means by rewards and punishment?
foundation for skinner
When did Locke say education was most effective?
- When it is enjoable
- takes advantage of a child's natural curiosity (piaget)
- instruction in small steps (vygotsky)
Theoretically, who was the complete opposite of Locke?
Was Rousseau more nature or nurture?
- Individuals already have nature's pre-determined plan in place and we are just letting development happen
Who is considered the beginning of Stage theory?
What is a cricial period?
- brief window of opportunity to learn a certain type of information.
- subject to environmental conditions
- not in the control of the individual
What is a sensitive period?
longer period of time that is better for learning types of information.
Describe stage development
- in a short amount of time you see a big shift
- i.e. no language skills to talking
Describe continuous development
- you have more gradual change
- i.e. number of words spoken
What are the two criteria to be considered intelligent behavior?
- Goal oriented
- help the organism adapt to environment
What are the 6 approaches to cognitive development?
- Information Processing
- Cognitive neuroscience
- Social Contextual
When did behaviorism take off in the U.S.
When did developmentalists start to dig Piaget?
Is an information processing approach more nature or nurture?
- very much nurture
- experience drives learning
- individual differences are the key.
- quantitative approach
Describe cogitive neuroscience
- examines the brain structures involved in thought and memory.
Describe the Information Processing approach
- Looks at the brain like a computer
- individual differences are the key