Bio 1020 (mid term)

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  1. nuclur lamina
    • on nuclur side
    • net like array of protein fillaments
    • maintains shape of nucleus
  2. What composes the mitochondrial membranes?
    Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins
  3. Biosphere
    environments innsbited by life
  4. ecosystem
    all living components of an area
  5. Solution
    • Solution complete homogenous mixture ie. salt water
    • Solvent disolving solute ie. water
    • Solule substance being disolved ie. salt
  6. Above __ degrees C water acts like other liqids
    4 degrees C, below acts opposite
  7. What are the classifications for life?
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  8. Hydrophillic
    hass an affinity for water, relativly polar bonds
  9. Scanning electron microscope
    Focus a beam onto surface of a specimen, looks 3D
  10. Transmission electron microscopes
    Beam of electrons through a specimen, look at internsl struture of cells
  11. T/F the nucleur envelope. SER and RER are all connected?
  12. Pyrimine
    • SIngle ring nitrogenous base
    • cytosine, thymine, uracil
  13. What does antiparellel refer to in respect to a DNA strand
    • The strands runing opposing directions
    • 3'-----> 5'
    • 5'-----> 3'
    • complimentery!
  14. What is the difference between deoxyribose and ribose?
    RIbose has an extra O making an extra OH group
  15. pore complex
    • inatricate protein structre
    • lines each layer of the nucleurenvelope
    • regulates entry exit of proteins and RNAs.
  16. system biology
    investigating now changes in one more variables affect other components
  17. Function of ER
    • Metabolic processes
    • synthesize lipid
    • metabolism of carbs
    • detox of drugs and poison
    • storage of calcium ions
  18. T/F somebody bells can use phagocytosis
    • True- white
    • macrophages- white blood cell
  19. 4 major stages that led to cell production
    • 1. synthesis of small organic moleculs
    • 2. joining of small molecules to macro
    • 3. packageing into proto-cells )droplets withiut membranes)
    • 4. origin of self replicating molecules
  20. will hydrophobic or hydrophillc molecule pass through the membrane easier
  21. what is signal transduction
    • shape of receptor fits chemical messenger
    • message relayed inside cell
  22. what are the chricteristics of a basic amino acids (R group)
    • Hisidine
    • Argenine
    • Lysine
  23. what are the functions of membrane proteins
    • transportation
    • some act as enzymes
    • messengers
    • cell recognition
    • attachment to extracellular matrix
  24. What is selective permeablity based on
    • polarity
    • size
    • transport proteins
  25. What is the phenamenon of the membranes ability to maintain constant refered to as
    Homeo- viscus adaptation
  26. What do membranes do to maintain consistency as temp increases
    increase temp. fluidity increases therefore more saturated FAS are added
  27. Hydroxyl
    • OH-
    • alchonals
    • polar
    • hydrogen bonds
  28. Amino
    • Acts as a base
    • can pick up H+
    • make amino acids
  29. why is water polar
    Oxygen has stronger attraction for electrons
  30. Nucleic Acid
    macromolecules formed from dolymers called polynucleotides
  31. T/F Chromosomes make uo chromatin
    False Chromatin makes up chromosomes
  32. Fimbrae
    attatchment structures in a prokaryotic cell
  33. What are the common features of all cells
    • Plasma membrane
    • cytosol
    • cheomosomes
    • ribosomes
  34. What does adenine bond with
  35. what are the two types of nucleic acids
    RNA, DNA
  36. Nucleolis
    • Dense granules and fibres adjoining the chromatin
    • where ribosomes synthesized
    • proteins imported and assembled in large or small ribosomal sub units
  37. CIS vs. trans face.
    • CIS- vesicles can bond from ER
    • trans- vesicles that pinch off to other sites
  38. Who created amino acids from a primitive soup of early earth
    millers 1953 experiment H2, CH4, NH3 and electricity
  39. Capsule
    • jelly like outer coating
    • sticks to surface
    • protects from dehydration
  40. What is a nucleotide
    • composed of a:
    • nitrogen base
    • five carbon sugar
    • phoshate group
  41. What are the characteristics of a polar amino acid
    • S, O, N in R variable group
    • OH, SH, NH2
  42. what are the flattened membranous stacks of the Golgi apparatus called
  43. Plastid, what are the types
    • chloroplast
    • amyloplast
    • chromoplast
  44. What is a punne
    • Double ringed nitrogenous base
    • adenine
    • guanine
  45. What is a structural isomer
    differnt covalent arrangments of their atoms
  46. cisisomer
    • cisisomer- tnox's are on the same side
    • transisomer- two x's are an opposite side s
  47. Geometric Isomers
    same covalent arranngment, but different spatial arrangment
  48. Endomembrane system compnents
    • nucleur envelope
    • ER
    • Golgi
    • lysosome
    • vesicles
    • vacuoles
    • plasma membrane
  49. isomer
    same molecular formula, but different arrangments of an atom
  50. organic chemistery
    chemistery of carbon containing compounds
  51. acid
    • an acid donates a proton to a solution increase H+ concent-ration
    • accepts a proton from the solution H+ decreases
  52. specific heat of water? Ethenol?
    • water--> 1
    • Ethanol --> 6
    • specific heat= (cal/g/dergees C)
  53. water has a ____ specific heat
    high (amount of heat that has to be applied to water to change temp)
  54. wicking
    water moving by capillary action
  55. stroma
    fluid outside thylakaids which contains DNA, ribosomes
  56. Thylakoids
    • Flattened, interconnected sacs in hloroplasts
    • stacked like poker chips in granums
  57. mitochondrial matrix
    • enclosed by inner membrane contains
    • enzymes
    • DNA
    • ribosomes
    • enzymes catalyze cellular respraion, ATP enzyme built into wall
  58. what are the infolding of the inner mitochondrial membrane called
  59. meythl
    • non-polar
    • hydrophobic
  60. phosphate
    • confers
    • negative charge to molecules
    • reacts within water releasing energy
    • ATP
  61. emergent properties
    lower levels are not always predictive not always perdictive of higher levels
  62. Cells
    • cell- fundemental unit of life
    • Tissue- groups of similar cells that make up organs
  63. peroxisome function
    • oxygen breaks down FA to sned to mitochondria
    • detoxify posons to O
  64. genomics
    Studying whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genomes.
  65. genomics
    studying whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genames
  66. protobion
    Abiotically created molecule with in a membrane created by adding lipid to water
  67. What do the enzymes in peroxisomes do
    Remove H from subtrates and adds it to O2, making H2O2 -> hydrogen peroxside
  68. What is an amyloplast
    colorless organelle that stores starch (amylose) particularlyin roots and tubers
  69. what are the characteristics of an acidic amino acid
    C double bonded to O, single bonded to O
  70. central vacuole
    • prominant in older plant cells
    • storage
    • break down waste
    • hydrolysis of macromolecule
    • enlargement of vacuole is major mechanism in plant growth
  71. microvilli
    incerase sA eith out increasing volume
  72. What is a nucleoside
    sugar and nitrogenous basic
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Bio 1020 (mid term)
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