Anatomy Lec Cards

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  1. What are 4 Functions of Muscles?
    Cause movement, posture, control openings, and produce 80% of body heat.
  2. Explain the Connective tissues of the muscles:
    Superficial fascia....
    Deep: tough, strong, surrounds major muscles

    Superficial fascia: under skin, "subcutanious", fat

    Epimysium: surrounds entire muscle

    Perimysium: surrounds muscle bundle (muscle fasical)

    Endomysium: surrounds individual muscle cell
  3. Muscle Fasical
    Is a muscle bundle
  4. How does Growth/ Hypertrophy happen in a muscle tissue?
    Adds protien to muscle
  5. What is the "Origin" of a muscle?
    The fixed portion of the muscle
  6. What does the "Insertion" part of a muscle do?
    The movable part of the muscle
  7. What does the "Prime mover" do?
    Its the primary muscle that controls a function
  8. What does the "Synergist" part of a muscle do?
    Aids the prime mover
  9. What does the "Antagonist" part of a muscle do?
    Opposes the prime mover
  10. What does the "Fixator" part of a muscle do?
    Prevents the movement of bone
  11. What are the 4 Rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder?
    Supraspinatus (muscle above spine on scapula)

    Infraspinatus (muscle belove spine on scapula)

    Subscapularis (muscle on inside of scapula)

    Teres Minor
  12. Muscle cells = Muscle fibers
    Muscle cells = Muscle fibers
  13. 3 Muscle types
    Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
  14. Charactaristics of Skeletal muscles (5)

    Multiple nuclei

    Long cylinder shape

    Nuclei on outside

    Vollentary control
  15. Characteristics of Smooth muscles (2)
    Non striated

    Involuntary control
  16. Characteristics of a Cardiac muscle (5)

    Cells are branched

    1 Central nuclei

    Intercallated disks

    Involuntary control
  17. Regeneration capability of a muscle after injury
    Skeletal: NO

    Cardiac: NO

    Smooth: YES
  18. Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    The bank of calcium in a muscle
  19. Sarcoplasm
    Muscle cell fluid
  20. Myofilaments (2)
    Myosin (thick)

    Actin (thin)
  21. Tropomyosin
    Covers binding sites on actin
  22. Troponin
    Attaches to myosin
  23. What is a "Sarcromere"?
    The smallest unit of muscle.
  24. Motor neuron
    Signal goes from brain to muscle
  25. Sensory neuron
    Signal goes from skin to brain (HOT OR COLD)
  26. What does a "Motor unit" include?
    Includes 1 motor neuron and all the cells it intervates
  27. "Innervation of muscle fibers" are the...
    Includes the nerves supplied to a muscle
  28. The "Synapse" is the...
    Junctions between motor neurons and muscles
  29. Acetylcholine is a...
  30. Functions of calcium (2), sodium (1), potassium (1), and ATP (1).
    Calcium: causes the release of the neurotransmitter, attaches to triponin and unlocks the binding site.

    Sodium: rushes into cell causing the cell to go from a - charge to a + charge.

    Potassium: slowly comes out of the cell the same time as the sodium moving the charge back to a -.

    ATP: is the energy of the muscle (most efficient)
  31. What is the resting charge in a muscle cell?
    - (negative)
  32. Ligand gated channels
    Acetlycholine (Ach.)
  33. What releases the energy in the form of ATP?
    Breaking a phosphate bond
  34. What happens with "Tetanus"?
    Muscles do not relax... (Lock Jaw!!!)
  35. What do "Isometric contractions" do?
    No movements or shortening of muscle
  36. What do "Isotonic contractions" do?
    Contractions that shorten the muscle
  37. What are the 4 sources of energy for a muscle to contract?
    ATP ( most efficiant), gluclose, fat and protein.
  38. Aerobic Exercise
    contractions with enough oxygen (marathon racers)
  39. Anaerobic Exercise
    Contractions WITHOUT enough oxygen (sprinters or weight lifters)
  40. What happens to produce "Lactic Acid"?
    Results from ANAEROBIC exercise (what makes muscles sore!!!!!)
  41. Explain Gluclose and Glycogen
    Gluclose: blood sugar

    Glycogen: gluclose that is stored in the muscles and liver.
  42. Oxygen Debt
    Results from ANAEROBIC exercise.... the "out of breath" feeling.
  43. What is "Muscular Dystrophy"? (3 main points)
    Degeneration of muscle and the replacement of fat, hits young boys and most cases death before 20.
  44. What is "Myasthenia Gravis"? (4 main points)
    Autoimmune disease ( body attacks itself), body attacks Acetylcholine receptors on muscle. Hits women and can be treated with inhibitor meds.
  45. Image Upload
    "I-band"is the light band "A-band" is the darkband
Card Set:
Anatomy Lec Cards
2011-10-15 05:25:33

lecture exam 3
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