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What are 4 Functions of Muscles?
Cause movement, posture, control openings, and produce 80% of body heat.
Explain the Connective tissues of the muscles:
Deep: tough, strong, surrounds major muscles
Superficial fascia: under skin, "subcutanious", fat
Epimysium: surrounds entire muscle
Perimysium: surrounds muscle bundle (muscle fasical)
Endomysium: surrounds individual muscle cell
Is a muscle bundle
How does Growth/ Hypertrophy happen in a muscle tissue?
Adds protien to muscle
What is the "Origin" of a muscle?
The fixed portion of the muscle
What does the "Insertion" part of a muscle do?
The movable part of the muscle
What does the "Prime mover" do?
Its the primary muscle that controls a function
What does the "Synergist" part of a muscle do?
Aids the prime mover
What does the "Antagonist" part of a muscle do?
Opposes the prime mover
What does the "Fixator" part of a muscle do?
Prevents the movement of bone
What are the 4 Rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder?
Supraspinatus (muscle above spine on scapula)
Infraspinatus (muscle belove spine on scapula)
Subscapularis (muscle on inside of scapula)
Muscle cells = Muscle fibers
Muscle cells = Muscle fibers
3 Muscle types
Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
Charactaristics of Skeletal muscles (5)
Long cylinder shape
Nuclei on outside
Characteristics of Smooth muscles (2)
Characteristics of a Cardiac muscle (5)
Cells are branched
1 Central nuclei
Regeneration capability of a muscle after injury
The bank of calcium in a muscle
Muscle cell fluid
Covers binding sites on actin
Attaches to myosin
What is a "Sarcromere"?
The smallest unit of muscle.
Signal goes from brain to muscle
Signal goes from skin to brain (HOT OR COLD)
What does a "Motor unit" include?
Includes 1 motor neuron and all the cells it intervates
"Innervation of muscle fibers" are the...
Includes the nerves supplied to a muscle
The "Synapse" is the...
Junctions between motor neurons and muscles
Acetylcholine is a...
Functions of calcium (2), sodium (1), potassium (1), and ATP (1).
Calcium: causes the release of the neurotransmitter, attaches to triponin and unlocks the binding site.
Sodium: rushes into cell causing the cell to go from a - charge to a + charge.
Potassium: slowly comes out of the cell the same time as the sodium moving the charge back to a -.
ATP: is the energy of the muscle (most efficient)
What is the resting charge in a muscle cell?
Ligand gated channels
What releases the energy in the form of ATP?
Breaking a phosphate bond
What happens with "Tetanus"?
Muscles do not relax... (Lock Jaw!!!)
What do "Isometric contractions" do?
No movements or shortening of muscle
What do "Isotonic contractions" do?
Contractions that shorten the muscle
What are the 4 sources of energy for a muscle to contract?
ATP ( most efficiant), gluclose, fat and protein.
contractions with enough oxygen (marathon racers)
Contractions WITHOUT enough oxygen (sprinters or weight lifters)
What happens to produce "Lactic Acid"?
Results from ANAEROBIC exercise (what makes muscles sore!!!!!)
Explain Gluclose and Glycogen
Gluclose: blood sugar
Glycogen: gluclose that is stored in the muscles and liver.
Results from ANAEROBIC exercise.... the "out of breath" feeling.
What is "Muscular Dystrophy"? (3 main points)
Degeneration of muscle and the replacement of fat, hits young boys and most cases death before 20.
What is "Myasthenia Gravis"? (4 main points)
Autoimmune disease ( body attacks itself), body attacks Acetylcholine receptors on muscle. Hits women and can be treated with inhibitor meds.
"I-band"is the light band "A-band" is the darkband