Herpetology Exam #2

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  1. How many total stages are in anuran development and metamorphosis?
    46 stages
  2. Embryonic development?
    Fertilization through opercular development (Stages 1-25)
  3. What stages are responsible for fertilization through opercular development?
    Stages 1-25
  4. Larval?
    Independent feeding through tail resorption (Stages 26-46)
  5. What stages are reponsible for indepentdent feeding through tail resorption?
    Stages 26-46
  6. Stage 1
  7. Stages 2-9
  8. Stages 10-12
  9. Stages 13-16
  10. During anuran development and metamorphosis, they cannot eat until what stage?
    Stage 26
  11. Before stage 26, what do they anurans use as a food source?
  12. By what stage is there muscle reponse?
    Stage 18
  13. Stage 19
    Heart beat
  14. Stage 20
    Gill circulation
  15. Stage 21
    Cornea is transparent
  16. Stage 23 -25
    • Operculum develops
    • External gills degenerate
    • Internal gills develop
  17. Free-swimming independently feeding larva are at what stage?
    Stage 26
  18. Stage 23
    Mouth parts begin developing, as the adhesive organ degenerates
  19. What happens to the labial ridges?
    They become cornified
  20. Anurans larvae are what type of eaters?
    Algae eaters
  21. What do anuran larvae eat?
  22. Stage 41
    Larval mouth parts begin to degenerate as adult mouth forms
  23. Stage 26-30
    Limb growth
  24. Stage 31-38
    Toe development
  25. Stage 39-40
    Subarticular tubercles
  26. Stage 41
    • Skin over forelimbs are transparent
    • Larval mouthparts begins to degerate
  27. Stage 42-46
    • Metamorphosis
    • Forelimbs break through
    • Mouthparts for insect eating
    • Tail is resorbed
  28. How many stages do salamanders have before they hatch?
    46 stages
  29. Some salamanders hatch with ectodermal balancers, which salamander families do they belong to?
    Salamandridae and Ambystomatidae
  30. Some Salamandridae and Ambystomatidae hatch with _________ ___________ until forelimbs are developed.
    ectodermal balancers
  31. Ectodermal balancers
  32. Why is the metamorphsis process not as extreme for caudates?
    Because they do not lose their tails and they do not have a lot of changes for their mouth parts
  33. Later stages of metamorphosis are promoted by high concentrations of?
    Thyroxine (T3 & T4)
  34. What parts of the anatomy have to be working in order to get Thyroxine?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Thyroid gland
  35. The thyroid gland is acted upon by the TSH (thyroid stimulating horomone) from the?
    anterior pituitary
  36. Anterior pituitary is acted upon by TSHRF (thyroid stimulating hormone releasing factor) from the?
  37. Early development is controlled by?
    Prolaction from the anterior pituitary
  38. Thyroxine inhibits?
  39. Neotony
    Retaining larval characteristics into adulthood
  40. Name six salamander families that are obligate neotenes:
    • Sirenidae
    • Proteidae
    • Amphiumidae
    • Cryptobranchidae
    • Ambystomatidae
    • Plethodontidae
    • Salamandridae
  41. What amphibian orders do not experience neotony?
    Caecilians and anurans
  42. Which families of obligate neotenes do not respond or metamorphose when treated with thyroxine?
    Sirenidae, Proteidae, Amphiumidae, and Cryptobranchidae
  43. Which families of obligate neotenes respond and metamorphose when treated with thyroxine?
    Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, and Salamandridae
  44. Give an example of an obligate neotene that will metamorphose when treated with thyroxine. (Genus species)
    Ambystoma mexicanum
  45. Facultative neotenes are influenced by?
  46. Which facultative neotenes will metamorphose?
    Sea level populations (Temperate regions)
  47. Which facultative neotenes will not metamorphose?
    Montane populations
  48. Explain why the adult forms of facultative neotenes do not metamorphose when treated with thyroxine
    Facultative neotene's tissues take longer to metamorphose because it is depends on the temperature. The age of the tissue is beyond when it can respond to thyroxine. By the time the hypothalamus is mature enough to release TSHRF, the tissues are non-responsive.
  49. Give an example of an facultative neotene that will not metamorphose when treated with thyroxine. (Genus species)
    Ambystoma gracile
  50. The earliest amphibian fossils are from what geological time period?
    Devonian (350 mya)
  51. Name the 2-fish subclasses
    • Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
    • Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes)
  52. Characteristics of Actinopterygii
    • Ray-finned fishes
    • Most of the fish we know today
    • Lack internal nares
  53. Characteristics of Sarcopterygii
    • Lobe-finned
    • Gave rise to amphibians and all tetrapods
    • Have internal nares
  54. 2-orders of Sarcopterygii
    • Dipnoi (lungfish)
    • Crossopterygii
  55. 2-suborders of Crossopterygii
    • Coelacanthiformes
    • Rhipidistia
  56. Characteristics of Coelacanthiformes
    • Marine environment
    • Most members are extinct
  57. Characteristics of Rhipidistia
    • Fresh water environment
    • All are extinct
    • Gave rise to amphibians and all tetrapods
  58. Name the 3-subclasses of Amphibia
    • Labyrinthodontia
    • Lepospondyli
    • Lissamphibia
  59. Name 3-orders of Labyrinthodontia (all are extinct)
    • Ichthyostegalia
    • Anthracosauria
    • Temnospondyli
  60. Lepospondyli (all are extinct)
    No orders to learn
  61. Name the 4-orders of Lissamphibia (1-extinct order and 3-modern orders)
    • Proanuran (extinct)
    • Apoda
    • Anura
    • Caudata
  62. All amphibians have what type of teeth?
    Labyrinthodont teeth
  63. The only fish to have labyrinthodont teeth are?
  64. Characteristics of Ichthyostegalia (order)
    • Devonian period (oldest)
    • Have a fishlike skull, but pectoral girdle no longer articulates
    • Nueral spines for muscle attachment
    • Has a pelvic and sacrum
  65. Characteristics of Anthracosauria (order)
    • Existed from Mississippian through Permian (about 100 million years)
    • Gave rise to reptiles in mid-Permian (250mya)
  66. Characteristics of Temnospondyli (order)
    • Existed from Mississippian through the Triassic
    • Began with mostly aquatic fresh water forms
    • Some became terrestrial
    • Some became marine
    • Possibily gave rise to modern amphibians
  67. Characteristics of Lepospondyli
    • Extinct by early Permian
    • Probably entirely aquatic
    • Bizarre body shapes, but most are small and bring to mind the salamander body shape
  68. Characteristics of Lissamphibia
    • Modern orders have adaptations:
    • Pedicellate teeth
    • Green rods in eyes
    • Fat bodies from gonadal ridge
    • Unique skin glands
  69. Conflicting theories
    • Some believe that anurans and caecilians evolved from Temnospondyli and salamanders evolved from Lepospondyli
    • Since all three modern orders have the unique characteristics, it is unlikely these all evolved independently in all three groups
    • Most herpetologists believe that Lissamphibia arose from Temnospondyli
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Herpetology Exam #2
Herpetology Exam #2
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