Biology Ch. 3

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  1. Organic Compounds
    A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually the element hydrogen.
  2. Hydrocarbons
    An organic compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
  3. Carbon Skeleton
    The chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule.
  4. Isomers
    Organic compounds with the same volecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties.
  5. Functional Groups
    A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions.
  6. Hydrophilic
    "Water loving"; pertaining to polar or charged molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water.
  7. Hydroxyl Group
    A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.
  8. Carbonyl Group
    A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
  9. Carboxyl Group
    A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
  10. Amino Group
    A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
  11. Phosphate Group
    A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms.
  12. Methyl Group
    A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
  13. Macromolecules
    A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction: a protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid.
  14. Polymers
    A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
  15. Monomers
    The subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
  16. Dehydration Reaction
    A chemical reaction in wich two molecules become covalenty bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
  17. Hydrolysis
    A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; process by which polymers are broken down and an essential part of digestion.
  18. Enzymes
    Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.
  19. Monosaccharides
    The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O. Monosaccharides are the monomers of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  20. Disaccharide
    A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction.
  21. Polysaccharides
    Macromolecules, polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions.
  22. Starch
    A storage polysaccharide in plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers.
  23. Glycogen
    An extensively branced glucose storage polysaccaride found in liver and muscle cells; the animal equivalent of starch.
  24. Cellulose
    A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers. Cellulose molecules are linked into cable-like fibrils.
  25. Chitin
    A structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
  26. Lipids
    An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic. Lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroilds and are insoluble in water.
  27. Hydrophobic
    "Water fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that do not dissolve in water.
  28. Fat
    A lipid composed of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; a triglyceride. Most fats function as energy-storage molecules.
  29. Unsaturated Fatty Acid
    A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail and thus lacks the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature.
  30. Saturated Fatty Acid
    A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydro-carbon tail are connected by single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached to the carbon skeleton. Saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature.
  31. Trans Fat
    An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, which is linked to health risks.
  32. Phospholipids
    A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule two nonpolar hydrophobic tails and a polar hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that fuction as biological membranes.
  33. Steroids
    A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached. Examples are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
  34. Cholesterol
    A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids, such as hormones.
  35. Anabolic Steroids
    A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects.
  36. Protein
    A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.
  37. Amino Acids
    An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins.
  38. Peptide Bond
    A covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction.
  39. Polypeptide
    A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  40. Denaturation
    A process in whih a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused bychanges in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature; also refes to the separation f the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
  41. Primary Structure
    The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
  42. Secondary Structure
    The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
  43. Tertiary Structure
    The third level of protein structure; the overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R group of the amino acids making up the chain.
  44. Quaternary Structure
    The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
  45. Gene
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses.) Most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  46. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Capable of replicating, DNA is an organism's genetic material.
  47. RNA (riboneucleic acid)
    A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses.
  48. Nucleotides
    A building block of nucleic acids, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups.
  49. Double Helix
    A form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands interwound into a spiral shape.
Card Set
Biology Ch. 3
Molecules of Cells
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