vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-part-2

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darlene.m.nelson
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109130
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vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-part-2
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2011-10-15 16:16:12
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vet tech animal diseases chapter pansystemic part parvo lepto set
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vet tech animal diseases chapter 1 pansystemic diseases 1 part 2 Parvo to lepto set
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  1. Parvo
    • Etiology - Canine Parvo virus
    • transmission - oral fecal route
    • prognosis - grave - 90% fatal; if survive permanent damage to intestines, eg chronic soft stool
    • related to feline panleukopenia
    • first isolated 1978
    • likes rapidly growing cells
    • kills intestinal cells, then goes to WBC
    • primarily disease of juveniles
    • bimodal - see symptoms go away, then see more
  2. Parvo diagnosis
    • presentation
    • physical exam
    • laboratory exam
  3. Parvo diagnosis - presentation
    • depression - usually must be carried into vet
    • lethargy
    • anorexia
    • vomiting - transient for about 24 hours, then act better
    • bloody diarrhea - 24 hours after vomiting; smells worse than anything you can imagine
    • dehydration - severe and rapid
  4. Parvo diagnosis - physical exam
    • fever
    • depression
    • dehydration
  5. Parvo diagnosis - laboratory exam
    • CBC - low WBC; normal 10,000 - 15,000; parvo can get to about 500
    • Profile - hypoglycemia - around 60
    • ELISA - +parvo
    • Serology - high titer
  6. Parvo treatment options
    • symptomatic care
    • - fluids
    • - plasma
    • - antibiotics
    • - lymphokines (made by T-cels) - white cell stimulating factor; shots about $700-$1500 each & need multiple
    • - supportive care - all in isolation - catheter gets infected very easily
    • - takes 4-7 days to tell whether they will live or not
    • euthanasia
    • even with excellent care there is 75% mortality rate & will cost thousands of dollars
  7. Parvo prevention
    • Vaccination
    • - modified live
    • - CPV 154 (most common in combo vax) vs CPV 2A (KF11) (higher titering vax for puppies to create greater immune response)
    • extended maternal immunity - can cause vax failure as maternal antibodies respond and puppy doesn't make any/many in response to vax
    • parvo has mutated enough that even vaccinated dogs are getting it
    • breed sensitivity to parvo rottweilers at 10-18 months
    • different schedule and even diferent vax for different localities
    • stays in environment for 6 months, so no new pets for 6 months
    • - bleach/disinfect regularly for 6 months ALL surfaces, toys, etc
    • - shed virus for 5-7 days before symptomatic and 30 days after recovery
  8. Canine corona virus
    • canine viral diarrhea
    • puppies - almost never adults
    • crowded conditions - shelters, pet stores, puppy mills, etc
    • transmission - oral fecal - implies poor hygiene
    • highly contagious
    • prognosis - good
  9. Corona virus
    • Corona = crown
    • affects many species
    • - cat - infectious peritonitis (FIP)
    • - pigs - atrophic rhinitis
    • - humans - bronchitis (SARS)
  10. Canine corona virus presentation
    • causes a bloody diarrhea
    • acute onset of both vomiting and diarrhea at same time, unlike parvo - terrifies clients
    • diarrhea is foamy and may be blooy (tinged)
    • if you have had bronchitis and cough on dog, it will titer for corona virus, so titers not useful
  11. Canine corona virus diagnosis - rule out
    • parvo
    • HGE - hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
    • - massive dehydration
    • - prognosis good with fluids & antibiotics
    • - usually old dogs
    • - bloody diarrhea, like raspberry jelly
    • foreign body
    • other causes of bloody diarrhea
  12. Canine corona virus diagnosis
    • presentation - vomiting concurrent with diarrhea
    • lab results
    • - WBC - not extremely low
    • - no hypoglycemia
    • - parvo snap (-) or sent out sample (usually get back in morning)
    • still isolate if hospitalized
    • don't smell like parvo dogs
  13. Canine corona virus treatment
    • supportive care
    • - fluids
    • - antibiotics
    • prognosis - good
    • - if hydration is maintained, animal should recover in 3-5 days
  14. Canine corona virus
    • prevention
    • - vaccination in susceptible populations - shelter, pet store, etc
    • - 8, 12, 16 weeks
    • - killed
    • - single or combination products
  15. Canine Adeno viruses
    • CAV-1 and CAV-2
    • they are like cousins
    • look alike to immune system, although symptoms are different
  16. Canine Adeno viruses - CAV-1
    • Canine infectious hepatitis
    • highly contagious
    • most infections asymptomatic - 99% of the time
    • shed in urine for up to 9 months
    • Dr Komisar has seen 1 case in 30 years
  17. Canine Adeno viruses - CAV-1 symptoms
    • fine one day, sick the next
    • acute liver failure characterized by:
    • - petecchia - hemorrhages at capillary level
    • - ecchymoses - blood vessels so fragile animal bruises with normal touch
    • - DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulpathy)
    • -- is an end stage process
    • -- liver makes clotting proteins for blood
    • -- when liver fails, proteins are not replaced
    • -- platelets step up to the job
    • -- when platelets are used up, nothing to stop the bleeding
    • general symptoms of liver disease
    • - anorexia
    • - inappetance
    • - jaundice
    • - vomiting/diarrhea
  18. Canine Adeno viruses - CAV-1 diagnosis
    diagnosis is by exclusion
  19. Canine Adeno viruses - CAV-1 treatment
    • supportive
    • - good nursing
    • - fluids
    • - antibiotics
    • - antiemetics
    • - antidiarrheals
    • - plasma
    • - transfusions
    • euthanasia
  20. Canine Adeno viruses - CAV-1 prognosis
    grave for symptomatic dogs
  21. Canine Adeno virus - CAV-2
    • part of the kennel cough complex - damages respiratory lining so Bordatella can get a hold
    • may be a normal inhabitant of the respiratory tree
    • normally immune system and respiratory flora keep it in check
    • opportunistic pathogen
  22. Canine Adeno virus - CAV-2 clinical signs
    • dry hacking cough
    • +- fever
    • +- lethargy
    • +- inappetance
    • get really tired from coughing all the time
  23. Canine Adeno virus prevention
    • modified live vaccine
    • - CAV-1 only
    • - CAV-2 only
    • - CAV 1+2 both
    • vaccine reaction
    • - hepatitis "blue eye" (blindness) - will resolve in 4-6 weeks; can be one or both eyes
    • - associated with CAV-1 vaccine
    • - CAV-2 is cross protective
    • DHLPP - traditionally has both
    • DA2LPP - has only CAV-2
    • need to be careful when ordering
    • CAV-1 virus is the one that makes you really sick
  24. Leptospirosis
    • lepto - slender, delicate
    • spira - spiral
    • bacteria - spirochete - makes more serious vax reactions
    • transmission - ingestion of organism, usually through contaminated water source
    • shed through urine
    • etiology - Leptospira interrogans
    • zoonotic disease
    • wide range of natural resevoirs including - raccoons, rats, and aquatic mammals (seals)
    • multiple strains cause a variety of symptoms - not cross protective
  25. Strains
    also called serovars, variants, or valances
  26. Leptospirosis - common serovars in US
    • Ictohemorrhagia
    • Canicola
    • Pomona
    • Grippotyphosa
    • Bratislava
    • actually 27 strains - multivalent vax available
  27. Leptospirosis clinical signs
    two phases: initial phase and secondary phase
  28. Leptospirosis clinical signs - Initial phase
    • 2-20 days after exposure
    • lethargy
    • fever
    • anorexia
    • +- vomiting
  29. Leptospirosis clinical signs - secondary phase
    • occurs shortly (24-48 hours) after initial symptoms subside
    • jaundice
    • abdominal pain
    • back pain - try to bite when petted
    • acute renal failure
    • some strains go to liver 1st, affect liver then go to kidney; some go to kidney 1st
  30. Leptospirosis diagnosis
    • rule out other causes of acute liver/kidney disease
    • lab values show damage to liver and kidneys, but are not diagnostic
    • serology necessary for diagnosis - 4 fold increase over a 4 week period
    • - or try to culture lepto in urine (but hard to culture)
    • - animal doesn't necessarily have 4 weeks
  31. Leptospirosis treatment
    • euthanize
    • expensive and log
    • significant risk to all humans who contact animal for up to 3 months (even after over acute phase)
    • - waste is biohazard
    • supportive care
    • antibiotics
    • - penicillin and doxycycline - usually 8 weeks, stop for 2, culture blood and urine; if growth, treat for another 8 weeks
    • - blood and/or urine culture to make sure infection is cleared
  32. Leptospirosis prevention
    • multivalent bacterin - bivalent, trivalent, tetravalent
    • alone or combined with DHLPP
    • immunization may contribute to carrier state
    • - vax & exposed - can be infected and subclinical (no symptoms)
    • bacterin may cause significant vaccine reactions
    • - Cocker Spaniels may tend to have more
    • immunization needs to be every year
    • separate vaccine - contains 4 serovars - Canicola, ictohemorrhagia, grippotyphosa, pomona
    • combination vaccines
    • - bivalent - canicola, ictohemorrhagia
    • - multivalent (Fort Dodge - durammune max 5/4L = DAAPP and 4 strains of lepto)
  33. Leptospirosis vaccine reactions
    • angioneurotic edema
    • - swelling head
    • - 4-8 hours post vax
    • - emergency - can progress to oropharynx
    • - treat with prednisone shot or benadryl and watch
    • urticaria
    • - hives
    • - itching like crazy
    • - 4-6 hours post vax
    • - not life threatening
    • - benadryl
    • - can progress to angioneurotic edema/anaphylaxis
    • need to chart reactions
    • if vax needed again after reaction, give premed: have owner bring in for the day
    • - benadryl
    • - wait 1 hour
    • - give shot
    • - watch the rest of the day for reactions

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