vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-2-part-1

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darlene.m.nelson
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vet-tech-animal-diseases-ch-1-pansystemic-diseases-2-part-1
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2011-10-15 16:23:13
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vet tech animal diseases chapter pansystemic part through brucellosis reportable set
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vet tech animal diseases chapter 1 pansystemic diseases 2 part 1 through brucellosis and reportable diseases set
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  1. Kennel cough complex
    • aka infectious tracheobronchitis
    • generally self-limiting - 7-10 days will get over it, similar to a cold
    • mildly zoonotic, esp in immune compromised individuals - eg AIDS, kids w/ asthma, very young/old
    • highly contagious among animals
    • may affect cats, guinea pigs and rabbits
    • severity of disease dependent on individual patient's immune status
    • can progress to pneumonia
    • - need to see them to assess this
    • wash hands after handling sick animal
  2. Kennel cough complex etiology
    • not one, but a complex
    • need all 3 of following to get disease:
    • - infectious
    • - environmental
    • - individual
  3. Kennel cough complex etiology infectious factor
    • usually present in all animals
    • CAV-2
    • Parainfluenza
    • Bordatella bronchiseptica
    • - Gram(-) bacteria
    • - normal inhabitant of respiratory tract
  4. Kennel cough complex etiology environmental factor
    • particulate matter
    • eg fall -leaf debris; spring - salt dust
  5. Kennel cough complex etiology individual factor
    • stress
    • eg at kennel
  6. Kennel cough complex etiology factors in kenneled dogs
    • stress - slightly lower immune function
    • cleanliness - particulate matter
    • lets infectious agents take hold, eg opportunistic bacteria
    • the more the animal coughs, the more the infection takes hold
    • barking at kennel irritates trachea & helps infection take hold
  7. Kennel cough complex symptoms
    • cough
    • - non-productive
    • - honking - sounds like a goose
    • fever
    • - sometimes
    • - low grade
    • lethargy - tired from coughing
    • inappetance
    • variable
  8. Kennel cough complex diagnosis
    • history
    • - kenneling
    • - grooming
    • - high particulate count
    • physical exam
    • - sensitive trachea
    • -- prees lightly and animal will start coughing
    • imaging - x-ray
    • - bronchial pattern
    • laboratory
    • - elevated WBC - 15k-17k (normal is 12k, parvo 4k)
    • new vet may do more tests
  9. Kennel cough complex treatment
    • antibiotics - broad spectrum - to prevent pneumonia
    • Glucocorticosteroids - control inflammation
    • Anti-tussives (cough suppressants) for non-productive cough
    • - Robitussin
    • - warm honey
    • - narcotic
    • -- hycodan
    • -- butorphanol
    • -- codeine
    • expectorant for productive cough
    • bronchiodilators
    • - terbutaline
    • - aminophylline
    • self-limiting disease - 7-10 days for respiratory tree to heal, so may cough for another 5-7 days
    • as long as they're coughing, they're contagious
    • young animal
    • - antibiotic
    • - antitussive
    • - will get better
    • older animal
    • - COPD - add bronchiodilator
    • - anti-inflammatory
    • - steroid
  10. Kennel cough complex complications
    • secondary bacterial pneumonia
    • - severe prodctive cough
    • - high fever - 104ish
    • - cyanosis - can't perspire so will turn blue
    • - anorexia - stop eating as it is harder to breath with a full stomach
    • - life threatening
    • - if start to struggle during x-ray, do dorsal ventral instead of ventral dorsal
    • - no way to predict which patient will do well and which one won't
  11. Kennel cough complex prevention
    • injectable vaccine
    • - 2 injections 3 weeks apart, then yearly
    • intranasal
    • - avirulent live
    • -- not able to multiply
    • -- not dangerous
    • - efficacy is low - approx 75%
    • - duration - < 6 months
    • - vaccine induced cough
    • helps with symptoms, makes it less severe
    • boarding kennels
    • - most insist on Bordatella
    • - takes 7-10 days to respond to vaccine, but kennels don't care if it's same day
    • this vaccine not used properly, only 6 months efficacy, but only given yearly
  12. Canine influenza (CIV)
    • aka Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD)
    • emerging disease
    • first described in 2004
    • highly contagious
    • - aerosol
    • - fomites - anything cough droplets land on is contagious
    • not zoontic
    • acquired in communal settings - eg dog parks
    • potential for epidemic spread
    • 20% progress to severe disease and die
    • - most are immunilogically naive
  13. Canine influenza etiology
    • influenza A subtype H3N8
    • - mutant strain of equine influenza (horse racing virus)
  14. Canine influenza symptoms
    • very similar to kennel cough
    • - differential is that influenza spreads rapidly
    • symptoms progress rapidly from cough to life threatening pneumonia
  15. Canine influenza diagnosis
    • based on symptoms
    • progression
    • nasal swabs
    • - early on
    • - there is a test for it
    • titers - no titer if there has been no diagnosis
    • acute/peracute symptoms - comes on rapidly & progresses to termination in a short time
    • naive population - die in 24 hours
    • fine in AM, near death in PM
  16. Canine influenza treatment
    • supportive care
    • - fluids - making mucus makes you dehydrated
    • - oxygen - cage
    • antibiotics for secondary infections
    • bronchiodilators
    • expectorants
    • - dextromethorphan - Robitussin D
    • - guaifenesin
    • cough suppressant
    • progression is short
    • - either they respond or die
  17. Canine influenza prevention
    • good hygeine
    • - for dog and human
    • - should have a system to know when clean vs unclean
    • - kennel environments
    • - shelters
    • - wash hands between EVERY animal
    • immunization
  18. Canine influenza immunization
    • killed virus
    • 2 doses 2-4 weeks apart
    • non-core vaccine
    • - depends on population
    • not every dog needs this
  19. Canine brucellosis
    • Brucella
    • - Abortus - cattle (contaminates milk supply) and horses
    • - Canis - dogs
    • - Suis - pigs
    • - Ovis - sheep
    • - Melitensi - sheep and goats
    • - Neotome - wood rats (aka pack rats)
    • very uncommon illness - Dr K has not seen in 30 years of practice
    • intermediate in etiology
    • intracytoplasmic, intracellular
    • - virus gets into cell & hijacks DNA
    • - not many treatments can get this far into cell
    • - most bacteria on surface of cell, easier to treat - eg lepto, bordatella
    • - usually will get sick, then better, then sick, then better, etc
    • gram negative
    • cross reactive
    • - get antibodies but not disease from other species
    • - dog drinks from puddle that wood rat w/ bucellosis urinated in, will test positive for brucellosis, need to test further for Brucellosis Canis
    • no cross immunity
    • aka Malta fever, Undulant fever
  20. Canine brucellosis zoonosis
    • humans can get any form (from any species)
    • will render humans infertile
    • considered a bioterrorism agent - Homeland Security gets involved
  21. Canine brucellosis natural resevoirs
    • deer
    • elk
    • bison
    • buffalo
    • wild swine - probably in the South
    • this is important for livestock - contaminates milk supply
    • makes it almost impossible to eradicate
  22. Canine brucellosis transmission
    • you need to wear gloves, glasses, mask
    • ingestion of:
    • - fetal membranes - late gestation abortion
    • - uterine disharges
    • - milk
    • - urine
    • trans membrane
    • - skin and mucous membrane contact with body fluids of infected animals
    • - any break will let it in and you will get sick
    • venereal disease
    • - spread when breed
    • - most dairy farms don't do natural insemination
    • - with artificial insemination (AI), test semen 1st (generally blood test, but can test semen, too)
  23. Canine brucellosis clinical signs in the male
    • orchitis
    • - brucellosis is the 1st thing you think of with this symptom
    • - testes are red, hot, swollen, painful
    • lumbar discospondylosis
    • - disk looks fuzzy on x-ray
    • - lumbar - caudal spine
  24. Canine brucellosis clinical signs in the female
    • breeding failure
    • - often takes 2-3 failures before the owner thinks something is wrong
    • sontaneous abortion in 3rd trimester - 45-50 days into gestation
    • dead feti - full ter
    • retained placentas
  25. Canine brucellosis diagnosis
    • screening tests
    • - rapid slide agglutination
    • - in house
    • - indicates exposure to any species of Brucellosis
    • definitive diagnosis
    • - RSAT positive
    • - sample to Cornell for canis specific testing
    • - 2-ME TAT - 2-mercaptoethanol tube agglutination test
    • - AGID - agar gel immunodiffusion
    • - if positive, state gets involved => public health concern
  26. Canine brucellosis treatment
    • euthanasia - recommended as it is a public health risk
    • antibiotic therapy
    • - quarantine until cleared
    • - combination of penicillin and amino glycosides (IV drugs, like Genosen (sp?), gentamicin)
    • - public health concern
    • - 18-24 months of therapy
    • - no further breeding - fertility is greatly reduced
    • - culture blood and urine monthly until 3 consecutive months clean, then retest in 3 months
    • - dogs will be contagious until they test clear
    • - developed for line of Thomas Jefferson's fox hounds
    • -- whole line had it
    • -- very valuable dogs
  27. Canine brucellosis prevention
    • no vaccine available for digs
    • pre-breeding screening
    • - only way to control it
    • - both male and female
    • - every breeding - within 1 month
    • vaccine exists for cattle
    • - called strain 19
    • - vaccinated once as calf
    • - every year, every cow is checked for brucella titer
    • - very narrow vaccination window, so titer is predictable throughout the cow's life
    • - if one cow has it, entire herd is destroyed
    • - will also be in farm pond, will dissipate over time
  28. Disease reporting - International
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • - part of UN
    • - if there is evidence of epidemic disease in US, gets reported here
  29. Disease reporting - National
    • Center for Disease Control (CDC)
    • - state may contact
    • - part of Department of Health and Human Services
    • - divided into 6 coordinating centers
    • -- Environmental Health and Injury Prevention
    • -- Health and Information Services
    • -- Health Promotion
    • -- Infectious Disease - generally, we're involved here
    • -- Global Health
    • -- Terrorism
    • --- preparedness and emergency response
    • --- if brucellosis, involved here
    • - works in coordination with State and local government to contain and control public health issues in the US
    • -- eg Louisiana 20 years ag screw worm in flocks of sheep, CDC released irradiated sterile flies to contain it
    • - CDC also coordinates with WHO on issues of global concern
    • -- eg avian flu increase in cases in Mexico City - WHO tracks it, CDC is informed, tells State Dept, they issue travel advisory
  30. Disease reporting - State
    • Department of Public Health
    • - run public health labs
    • - if local can't help, try here
    • - local health inspectors report confirmed disease here
    • Department of Agriculture
    • - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) may be involved
    • -- brucellosis
    • -- tuberculosis
    • -- federally accredited vet may get involved through APHIS
    • - once disease is verified at State level information is transmitted to CDC
  31. Disease reporting - local
    • health inspector (HI)
    • - could be Animal HI, public HI, board of health
    • - most of the time, this is who we talk to
  32. Veterinarian's role in disease reporting
    • first line of defense
    • index of suspicion
    • knowledge of reportable diseases
    • - rabies
    • - screw worm
    • -- kind of aggressive maggot that eats live tissue
    • -- generally maggots only eat dead tissue
    • - brucellosis
    • - tuberculosis
  33. Reportable disease - Endemic
    • present in a community at all times
    • low frequency
    • eg common cold in NE in winter
  34. Reportable disease - Epidemic
    affecting large numbers in a community in a short period of time
  35. Reportable disease - Pandemic
    • wide spread epidemic - world wide
    • eg 1917-18 Spanish flu
    • - acutally originated in Kansas in Army processing facility getting kids ready for war
    • - last one
    • - 100s of 1000s of people died in US
    • - public functions suspended to limit spread
    • - permanent neurologic effects
    • - exposed in AM could be dead by bedtime
    • - most victims 18-35 years old

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