respiratory system

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Author:
cstephens
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109134
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respiratory system
Updated:
2011-10-27 20:56:25
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medical terminology
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respiratory system
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  1. involves the absorption of oxygen from the air by the lungs and the transportation of carbon dioxide from the lungs into the air
    external respiration
  2. involves the exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the cells of the body
    internal repiration
  3. filters, cools or warms, and moistens the air we breathe; is essential for our sense of smell
    paranasal sinuses
  4. four paranasal sinuses
    • frontal
    • ethmoid
    • sphenoid
    • maxillary
  5. a chnnel with an opening in the sides of the nasal cavity for the passage of air and mucus from the paranasal sinuses
    meatus
  6. external openings of the nose
    nares
  7. a wall dividing the nasal cavity into right and left halves
    nasal septum
  8. a space just inside the opening of the nose
    nasal vestibule
  9. holes in the nose
    nostrils
  10. cells that function in the sensation of smell located in the nose
    olfactory cells
  11. "sense of smell"
    -osm
  12. airspaces that are near the nasal cavity
    paranasal sinuses
  13. a space connecting the nose and the mouth with the trachea and esophagus
    pharynx
  14. "nose"
    rhino
  15. the most prominent cartilage in the larynx
    thyroid cartilage
  16. "trap door" cartilage of leaf-shaped cartilage that is over the opening of the larynx
    epiglottis
  17. opening at the upper part of the larynx
    glottis
  18. boxlike structure in the throat containing the vocal cords which produce the voice
    larynx
  19. action of passing air through the vocal cords, which vibrates and produces the sound of the voice
    phonation
  20. tissues in the larynx responsible for the production of the voice
    vocal cords
  21. largest cartilage in the larynx; "Adam's Apple"; increases in size as boys age causing their voices to change
    thyroid cartilage
  22. "windpipe" term literarly means "rough"; extends from the larynx to the main -stem bronchus;it functions as a passageway for air so that air can reach the lungs
    trachea
  23. where do the bronchioles terminate?
    alveolar ducts
  24. first division of the windpipe; extends from the trachea in a branchlike fashion
    main-stem bronchus
  25. as the bronchus extends, the diameter decreases. What are the smaller branches called?
    bronchioles
  26. small saclike cavities that allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to take place
    alveoli
  27. two lightweight organs of respiration; spongy, conical shaped organs composed of a network of pulmonary arteries, veins, alveoli, and connective tissue
    lungs
  28. the places that house the lungs
    pleural spaces
  29. the space in the thoracic cavity that houses the heart
    mediastinum
  30. outside surface of the lung
    visceral pleura
  31. three lobes
    right lung
  32. two lobes
    left lung
  33. the bronchi of each lung supplies air to segments of the lung so that each branch or bronchus has a particular lung space to which it is connected. What are the segments called?
    bronchopulmonary segments
  34. major divisions of the lungs
    lobes
  35. each lobe is subdivided into lung sections, each attached to a stem of the bronchus
    bronchopulmonary segments
  36. "to breathe"
    -pnea
  37. "lung," "air," or "breath"
    pneumo
  38. "lungs"
    pulmon
  39. space that stands in the middle of the chest between the two lungs
    mediastinum
  40. hair-like structures in the lungs that move secretions out of the lungs and protect the lung from outside environmental contaminants
    cilia
  41. viscous thick slippery, secretion of the mucous membranes.
    mucus
  42. term used for mucus when it contains other components such as cellular debris from the lining of the lung, microorganisms, outisde pollutants, etc.
    sputum
  43. general term meaning "side" It is the membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs and lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
    pleura
  44. a section of pleura that covers the walls of the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  45. section of pleura that covers the organs of repiration, lungs
    visceral pleura
  46. negative pressure space between the two pleura
    pleural space
  47. very thin coating of fluid between the two pariteal pleura
    pariteal fluid
  48. breathing is an _______ activity
    involuntary
  49. the muscles used for normal breathing
    diapragm and external intercostals
  50. root word for "air"
    aer
  51. another name for the upper respiratory tract
    airway
  52. air inhaled and exhaled during repiration
    breath
  53. noise heard from air moving in and out of the lungs
    breath sounds
  54. muscular wall across the trunk of the body between the thoracic and abdominal caivities
    diaphragm
  55. to force air out of lungs
    exhale
  56. to pull air into lungs
    inhale
  57. relating to the diaphragm
    phrenic
  58. word ending meaning "breathing"
    -pnea
  59. to breathe again
    respiration
  60. root word meaning to "breathe"
    spiro
  61. to provide new air through a blowing force
    ventilate
  62. loss of the sense of smell
    anosmia
  63. dislocation of the wall between the two nostrils
    deviated septum
  64. condition where blood drips upon the lining of the nose (nose bleed)
    epistaxis
  65. outgrowth of the mucous membrane lining in the nose (polyps can occur anywhere in the respiratory system)
    nasal polyp
  66. inflammation of the lining of the nose
    rhinitis
  67. running of fluid from the nose in response to an allergen (runny nose)
    allergic
  68. runny nose and stuffiness of nasal passages usually as a result of infection
    nonallergic
  69. inflammation of one of the sinus associated with the respiratory system
    sinusitis
  70. disease characterized by panting (the rapid breathing results as a reaction to outside stimuli, causing inflammation of the tubes of the lungs, causing restricted blood flow. The outside stimuli include allergens, thus noting it is an allergic disease.
    asthma
  71. severe condition in which the asthmatic reponse of the lungs causes restriction of airflow that cannot be reversed and the lungs causes restriction of airflow that cannot be reversed and the lungs remain in the constricted form (this is life-threatening)
    status asthmatics
  72. excessive dilation of the alveoli with accumulation of mucus in the dilated space of the alveolus
    bronchiectasis
  73. inflammation of the bronchi
    bronchitis
  74. cancerous tumor that begins in the broncus
    bronchogenic carcinoma
  75. condition in which the alveoli of the lungs have been blown in (the lungs have become permenantly inflated)
    emphysema
  76. inflammation of the tissue at the back of the tongue over the larynx
    epiglottitis
  77. type of the sound made when there is inflammation in the laynx (the sound produced is harsh and weak in intensity.)
    hoarseness
  78. disease characterized by the filtering of white blood cells and other proteins from the blood in to the alveoli, filling the space with fluid and not allowing air to reach the alveoli. The process results in scarring or fibrosis of lung tissue and diminished lung function
    pulmonary fibrosis, infiltrative lung disease
  79. powerful, acute, and contagious disease of the risperatory system. The symptoms manifest themselves as upper respiratory symptoms, although the lungs may also become involved.
    influenza
  80. malignant tumor of the larynx. Because of its location, it causes difficulty in swallowing and persistant hoarseness. These are two classic signs of cancer.
    laryngeal carcinoma
  81. inflammation of the larynx (because the larynx is the voicebox, this interferes with a person's ability to speak)
    laryngitis
  82. swelling of the larynx (condition not uncommon with musicians that pay wind instruments)
    laryngocele
  83. sudden contraction of the larynx, making it difficult for air to pass through the respiratory system
    laryngospasm
  84. an inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi occurring at the same time
    laryngotracheobronchitis
  85. intensive cough that results in whooping sound (whooping cough)
    pertussis
  86. small, abnormal opening that communicates between the trachea and esophagus
    tracheoesophageal fistula
  87. incomplete dilation of the lung tissue; a collapse of segments of lung tissue
    atelectasis
  88. a congenital metabolic disorder, in which secretions of the exocrine glands are abnormal
    cystic fibrosis
  89. malignant condition of the lung
    carcinoma of the lung
  90. bacterial infection of the lung named for the first documented outbreak at a convention of the American Legion
    Legionnaires disease
  91. cancer of the lung that has spread from other places in the body (It also can refer to a cancer that has other places from the lung to other places in the body)
    metastatic lung cancer
  92. condition of the lung caused by inhalation of various types of dust particles
    pnuemoconiosis
  93. abbestosis
    asbestos
  94. coal
    black lung
  95. cotton, flax, hemp particles
    byssinosis
  96. silicon
    silicosis
  97. condition in which the alveoli in the lungs become honey-combed and sac-like
    pneumocystis pneumonia
  98. inflammation of the lungs
    pnuemonia
  99. infection of the lungs from a bacteria usually found only in birds such as parrots
    psittacosis
  100. collection of excessive fluid, primarily lungs that affects the risperatory system
    pulmonary edema
  101. condition in which a traveling blood clot travels from the veins to the lungs
    pulmonary embolism
  102. condition in which small knobs or tubercles develop as part of the bacterial disease
    tuberculosis
  103. condition in which there is blood in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal pleura
    hemothorax
  104. inflammation of the membrane covering the lung, including the wall of the thorax
    pleurisy
  105. movement of fluid into the pleural space
    pleural effusion
  106. a condition in which there is air in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura in the chest cavity
    pneumothorax
  107. caused by widespread disease
    simple spontaneous
  108. air enters the pleural space but cannot get out with each respiration, thereby increasing the pressure
    tension pneumothorax
  109. severe condition usually caused by widespread infection in which the respiratory system is markedly affected, extreme difficulty in breathing
    acute respiratory distress syndrome
  110. absence of breathing
    apnea
  111. fluif of a foreign body being inhaled into the airways
    aspiration
  112. a chronic or long standing pulmonary disease caused by obstruction of the flow of air into and out of the lungs
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  113. involuntary rush of air from the lungs
    cough
  114. condition in which the skin takes on a bluish color (from the presence of unoxygenated blood)
    cyanosis
  115. difficult or labored breathing "shortness of breath"
    dyspnea
  116. change in the angle of the nail bed and the cuticle in which the fingertips take on a club appearance
    finger cubbing
  117. oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low and the carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
    risperatory failure
  118. condition in which breathing is easier if the person is in an upright or seated position
    orthopnea
  119. condition in which there is periodic absence of breathing during sleep
    sleep apnea
  120. heavy breathing that accompanies some conditions of diseases (snoring)
    stertor
  121. a sound, mainly during inhalation caused by a partial blocking of the throat, voice box, and windpipe
    stridor
  122. abnormally fast breathing
    stridor
  123. whistling musical sound on expiration from a partially obstructed airway
    wheezing
  124. x-ray picture of the bronchi taken after an injection of radiopaque substance
    bronchogram
  125. viewing device used to visualize the bronchi
    bronchoscope
  126. removal of the larynx or voice box
    laryngectomy
  127. removal of one of the lobes of the lungs
    lobectomy
  128. sound heard as inflamed pluera rub against each other
    pleural friction rub
  129. removal of one of the lungs
    pnuemonectomy
  130. abnormal rattling or crackling sound from the lungs
    rales
  131. coarse snoring sound from the lungs
    rhonchi
  132. test used to measure the efficiency of breathing
    spirometry
  133. surigal puncture into the thoracic cavity for the removal of fluid
    thoracentesis
  134. making an opening into the thorax to carry out a surgical procedure
    thoroactomy
  135. surgical procedure to make a somewhat permanent opening in the trachea
    tracheostomy
  136. surgical procedure to cut into the trachea
    tracheotomy
  137. a term used to indicate the largest amount of air that can be exchanged during repiration
    vital capacity
  138. drug taht works against or controls coughing
    antitussive
  139. drug that causes the dilation of the bronchi
    bronchdilator
  140. drug that works to decrease the congestion of the upper respiratory system
    decongestant
  141. drug used to help expel mucus from the chest
    expectorant
  142. drug that is delivered directly to the airway by inhalation
    inhalant
  143. a drug that breaks down mucus
    mucolytic agent

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