HIST 1025 Exam 1
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anti saloon league
what: womens protest against alc
sig: lead to 18th ammendment (prohibition
what: established prohibition
- sig: only ammendment ever repealed... (done by 21st)
- crime and corruption increased
"Battle Bob" Lafollette
when: 1924 -- ran for president
what: govenor of Wisconsin, who opponent against railroads, trusts, and corporations
Opposed RR tax
- Impose income tax on the wealthiest
- Public utilities commission… the
- state sets the rates on utilities
Established workers comp
when: early 20th century
what: a protestant christian movement for improvement in living and work conditions
sig: fought against long labor hours for steel workers, children, and mothers
what: 26th president... was a trust buster but he was pro business... he was ok with mergers and trusts, but not bad mergers and trusts
- Ways he monitored the monopolies and trusts
- strike and square deal
- ---Northern Securities case
- --Prevented JP Morgan from creating a massive
- railroad trust
- --Broke upTobacco Trust
- the ICC… appointed ppl and made companies show their monetary statements and
- show how they made their money
when: in office 1901-1909
- what: Teddy Roosevelt's plan in creating COMPROMISE with the minors strike vs George Baer
- -- workers receive a 10% pay raise... not 20%
- -- Work day cut to 9 hrs... not 8
sig: ended energy crisis... = the coal minors strike
who: 28th president and leader of progressive movement
when- in office 1913-1921
- sig: created major acts:
- - Fed reserve act
- - anti trust act
- - fed trade commission act
- - graduated income tax
New Freedom Policy
who: Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy
what: 3 reforms, Tarriff, business, and banking
Sig: the following acts created under this campaign
- - Underwood Tarriff act -- lowered tarriffs
- - Fed Trade Act -- halt unfair and illegal business practices
- - Fed Reserve system created
United Mine Workers Strike... when? where? what? sig?
- what: mine workers striked b/c they wanted
- -- shorter work hours (8 instead of 10)
- -- pay raise of 20% (only received 10)
sig: it was solved by the square deal
what: gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set max railroad rates
sig: one of teddy's acts of regulation
who: advocate for forests and gov of Penn
when: gov of Penn from1923-1927
sig: motivated people to be conservationists...
John Muir and the Sierra Club
who: Scottish-born American naturalist and author
what: created the Sierra Club (a conservation group)
sig: saved the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas
William Howard Taft
who: 27th president
- what: Taft's domestic agenda emphasized
- - civil service reform
- - improving of the postal service
sig: 16th ammendment and carried out dollar dimplomacy after teddy created it
16th ammendment = allowing income tax
dollar diplomacy = to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries
what: Teddy Roosevelt's Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election
- sig: created a few things
- - inheritance tax
- - women vote
- - direct election
- - worker protection
1912 election... who? winner? sig?
who: 4 way race
- Taft = republican
- Teddy = bull moose party... created this b/c did not receive republican nomination
- Debs = socialist party, railroad strike
- Wilson = democrat
- Winner = Wilson
- 2nd = Teddy
sig: Wilson = the only democratic president from 1892 and 1932
16th Ammendment... what? who? sig?
what: created income tax
who: Woodrow Wilson under
sig: the gov’t didn’t rely on tarriffs for revenue to the treasury anymore… it relied on income tax
Federal Trade Commission... what? when?
what: oversees the economy to ensure fairness
sig: it prevented monopolies... the companies would receive a warning. if they did not comply, the companies would be taken court
clayton anti-trust act... what? when? diff btw sherman act?
what: made monopolies illegal
diff btw sherman act: the clayton exempted workers and unions... the sherman did not make these exempt
sig: Wilson said workers and unions are exmpt from this act
War.... when? what/motives? sig?
- what / causes / motivations
- - mysterious sinking of the Maine
- - brutality by the Spanish on the Cubans
- - US investment in sugar in Cuba
- -protection of railroads
- -uniting of a country
sig: this was an attempt to unite the US... he said "wars unite all of the political parties"
Big Stick Diplomacy... when? what? sig?
what: "speak softly, but carry a big stick"... meaning speak softly-- be diplomatic.... but if you do not do what we want the US will use its army
sig: this created the Platt Ammendment. This says the US has the right to intervene in Cuba if:
- - another power attempted to take Cuba over
- - Cuba was having economic problems
OTHER SIG = platt ammendment allowed US to take over cuba given the circumstances... however under TELLER AMMENDMENT US could not take over Cuba at all
what: Taft's diplomacy for Asia and Latin Americ... guaranteed loans made to foreign countries
sig- used to benefit the bankers and businessmen in US
Manifest destiny... what? sig?
what: 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand
sig: this idea led to taking over Indian lands and taking the philipinnes
white man's burden... when? what? sig?
what: a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling
sig: reflects American colonisation of the Philippines
Queen Liliuokalani and Hawaii... when? what?
what: only queen of Hawaii
when: 1893... the US took over Hawaii
sig: she was queen when US took over
what: if Euro countries attempted take over countries in the Americas, the US would interfere
sig: issued when many Latin American countries were becoming independent from the Spanish Empire... prevented countries from taking over Latin America
Alfred Thayer Mahan... who? sig?
who: historian who said countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact
sig: countries began to start building their navies
Open door policy... when? what? sig?
what: policy allows all nations to trade in the Chinese market
sig: protected US business men who had investmets in China... if other countries had taking over trading ports, investors would be hurt
Yellow Journalism... when? what? sig?
what: propaganda printed in newspapers
sig: used to fuel the Spanish American war
USS Maine... when? what? sig?
what: a boat that mysteriously sank on its way to Cuba
sig: fueled Spanish American War... Mckinlly blamed Spanish for sinking the Maine
Teller Amendment... when? what? sig?
what: amendment saying that US could not take over Cuba
sig: Platt amendment changed this policy in 1901... platt amendment said US could take over Cuba if other countries attempted to take it or if Cuba was having economic problems
Philippine War... when? what? sig?
what: war btw US and people in Philippines over control
Platt Amendment... when? what? sig?
- what: said that US could not go into Cuba unless:
- - another country attempted to take over Cuba
- - Cuba was having economic difficulty
sig: this altered the teller amendment
Roosevelt Correlary to Monroe Doctrine... when? what? sig?
what: US declared they would not intervene in Latin America as long as nations conducted their affairs with “decency.”
- - made the US the policeman of the Western Hemisphere
- - made European powers keep out
Panama Canal... when? what? sig?
when: 1902-1914... starting from struggle to open date
what: a canal that linked carribean to pacific... offered columbian gov't $10 mil... they turned down
- - could double the U.S. navy's power
- - in order to get canal built, Roosevelt had to recognize Columbia as having a gov't
Black Jack Pershing... when? what? sig?
when: 1917... WWI
what: command the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) during WWI
sig: through his victory, he gave progressives confidence
William Jennings Bryan... when? who? significant trial? significance?
who: the prosecuter in the scopes trial and democratic nominee in 1908 election
sig trial: scopes trial... southern states passed legislation against the teaching of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in the public schools
- sig: Bryan lost the scopes trial. the scopes trial revealed the disdain btwn northerners and southerners...
- - educated vs uneducated
- -privledged vs the poor
George Creel... when? who? significance?
who: a muckraking journalist, who would create support for WWI by printing propaganda and organizing events where people would talk about their battle success stories
sig: created patriotism and rallied people at home around the troops
Henry Cabot Lodge... when? who? sig?
who: Republican Senator from Mass who had disagreed with Woodrow Wilson over the signing of the Treaty of Versille and joining the League of Nations
sig: because of his resistance to sign the treaty of versilles, the United States never became a member of the league of nations.
- --If the US had joined, they may have been able to prevent WWII
- -- The league of nations was weakened by the Us not joining
Emma Goldman... when? who? sig?
when: 1919... during the red scare (fear of russian spies)
who: a russian radical protestor of womens rights, labor strikes, and birth control
sig: she wadeported during the red scare
Zimmerman Telegram... when? what? sig?
what: British authorities informed Wilson of a secret telegram sent between German ministers promising that in the event of war between Germany and the United States, Germany would see that Mexico regained its “lost provinces” of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if Mexico would declare war against the United States
Sig: Woodrow Wilson war declared against germany...
18th Ammendment... when? what? sig?
when: 1920... end of progressive era
what: one of the last reforms of the progressive era... it banned the sale or consumption of alc
- -- Prohibition caused ordinary citizens to disrespect the law, corrupted the police, and demoralized the judiciary (opposite of what it was trying to fix)
-- the only ammendment that was repealed
National American Woman Suffrage (NAWSA)... when? what? sig?
what: a group demanding the vote for women
sig: eventhough women were not granted the right to vote until 1920, this group signaled a new era in women's fight for the vote and involvment in politics
19th Ammendment... when? what? sig?
what: allowed women to vote
sig: this ended the women's suffrage movement
Sedition Act... when? what? sig?
what: it was an act that forbit the use of "disloyal, profane, abusive language" about the United States government
- -- it was used to create patriotism
- -- a continuation of the espionage act
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
- what: Wilsons plan for world peace
- -an end to secret treaties;
- - freedom of the seas;
- - removal of barriers to free trade r
- - allowing the lands conqured by germany the right to govern themselves
sig: established the League of Nations (even though America never joined due to Lodge)
league of nations = a groups of nations that permitted countries from unruley actions against other nations
Schenck v. United States... when? what? sig?
what: Supreme Court decision that said Schneck was violating the Espionage act by bashing the draft during WWI
sig: limited the freedom of speech guaranteed by the constitution
Depression of 1893... what? sig?
what: panic was marked by the collapse of railroad system and a failing gold standard which lead to the foreclosure of a large amount of banks
- -- lead to massive layoffs and bank foreclosures
- -- lead to a series of strikes including the minors strike and the pullman strike
what: protestors that marched to washington to urge Congress to enact a public works program to end unemployment
sig: although unsuccessful, they demonstrated how ordinary citizens could influence politics in the 1890s outside of the normal voting process
Cross of Gold Speech... when? what? sig?
what: William Jenning Bryan's speech that advocated bimetallism
bimetallism = deriving the value of dollar based on the supply of gold and the supply of silver
William Mckinley... when? who? sig?
when: 1896 election
who: 25th president... supported the gold standard and high tariffs
sig: led the nation to victory in 100 days in the Spanish American War.
•The mckinely tarriff = the highest tarriff in US history
Election of 1896... who? important issues? who wanted what issues? sig?
who: William McKinley (republican) defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan (democrat)
- important issues:
- -- bimetallism
- -- the gold standard
- -- free silver
- -- tariffs
- -- were of primary importance
- -- Mckinnley wanted gold standard and high tarriffs
- -- Bryan an enemy of gold, banks and railroads... wanted silver
- -- up until this election, the whitehouse was dominated by republican, however this was the first election of the democratic era
- -- this led to the begin of the progressive era
Ida Tarbell... when? what? sig?
what: wrote a book that chronicled the methods Rockefeller had used to take over the oil industry
sig: shaped the public's harsh view of Rockefeller
Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"... when? what was it about? sig?
when: early 20th century
what: novel to portrays the life of the immigrant and the corruption of the American meatpacking industry
sig: enlightened people about the corruption in the meatpacking industry... wage slavery and poor work conditions
Jane Addams... when? who? sig?
when: progressive era
who: she argue that women are the ones who could clean up society and that in order to clean up society women must have the right to vote
sig: big contributor in getting womens vote
John Dewey's Educational Pragmatism... when? what? sig?
when: progressive era
- what: Believed learning facts was pragmatic skills… how to do something,
- not just memorize something. In this class we learn how to analyze things like praiser vs critics...also said that he could shape people into anything just by
- altering the encvironment
- sig: This would lead to schools like
- business schools…
John B. Watson... when? who? sig?
when: early 21st century
who: psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior
sig: new way of physcology
Alice Paul... when? who? sig?
who: women quaker protestor who founded the militant National Woman's Party (NWP)
sig: this led to womens right to vote
Margaret Sanger... when? who? sig?
who: a nurse who had worked among the poor on New York's Lower East Side
sig: first advocator of birth control
Mann act... when? what? sig
what: act that made it illegal to transport women across state lines for “immoral purposes.”
sig: decreased the amunt of red light districts in the US
Tom Johnson... when? who? sig?
who: Mayor of Cleveland... Johnson fought for fair taxation and allowed citizens to have a say in legislative and judicial matters
sig: had attempted to build his own streetcar line so working class could afford to get to work
Conservation vs preservation... when? difference between? s
when: early 1900's... progressive era
what: both were fighting for preservation of nature
diff: conservation sought to regulate human use while preservation sought to eliminate human impact altogether
Phillipine War... when? what? sig?
what: war between of Filipino revolutionaries and the United States which arose from the struggle to gain independence following annexation by the United States
sig: ?? that the Phillipines did not win their independence
William Jennings Bryan... when? who? sig?
when: ran for office in 1896, 1900, 1904
- who: Democract
- -- anti gold
- -- anti banks and railroads
- -- pro silver movement
- -- anti darwinism
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