UPDATEd history of ppl making discoveries in evolution.txt

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UPDATEd history of ppl making discoveries in evolution.txt
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updated history of evolution discoveries
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  1. Anaximander of Miletus
    • oldest to have ideas of evolution
    • Said all substances change their forms over time
    • believed humans did too, that they evolved from fish
  2. Emedoeles of Acragas
    • believed animals evolved from randomly associated body parts
    • ie: chimaera which had head of lion, wings of eagle)
  3. Plato
    Platonic idealism (fixity of species): the essence of something (ie: species) does NOT change over time
  4. Aristotle
    • agreed with Plato about fixity of species in HUMANS
    • believed that Some species could change over time, although the categorized species could not move to another category
  5. John Ray
    • species classification based on ANCESTRY and morphology
    • (ie: something appearing to be a dog is classified as such b/c its parents were both dogs)
  6. Carlos Linnaeus
    • uses Ray's definition of species using morphological criteria (homologous structures- same anatomical origins although DIFF fxns, vs analogous structure=same fxn, different anatomical origin)
    • Classified higher taxonomic ranks: K, P, C, O, F, G
  7. Georges Louis Leclerc
    • species may change over time
    • BIOLOGICAL species concept: ACCEPTED fixity of species, believes species are a group of related individuals that can INTERBREED to produce offspring
    • all species w/in a genus have a similar ancestry in a genius, all species w/in fame have similar ancestor in family
  8. James Hutton
    • Uniformitarianism idea: Neptunists (geological processes are OCEANIC) and Plutomist (geological processes are VOLCANIC) both at work, but required time in MILLIONS of years (gradualism).
    • Saw no beginning or end in time
  9. Jean-Baptist Lamarck
    • Change through Aquired Characteristics (ie: giraffe example, necks stretch & pass down this lengthening over time through generations). Also saw species never going extinct, will ADAPT and pass onto offspring.
    • Thought >1 ancestor (vs 1 for Darwin's view)
    • Species should be classified based on MORPHOLOGY (rather than via ability to interbreed of biological species concept)
    • Agreed w/spontaneous generation
    • Disagreed w/Aristotle that species remain fixed, but he thought the process of change was very slow
  10. Georges Cuvier
    • Ridiculed Lamarck by disagreeing w/ following:
    • 1. species originated through spontaneous generation
    • 2. species could avoid extinction
    • 3. uniformitarianism
    • Thought earth was younger and believed in divine creation (God) to make new species
    • Thought SPecies DO NOT evolve over time (ie: looked at fossils to see how it was and then followed by divine creation something new appeared)
  11. Adam Sedgwick
    • Estimated sequence of fossils bearing geological strata and divided into 3 eras:
    • 1. Paleozoic Era (Age of Fishes) ie: Silurian
    • 2. Mesozoic Era (Age of Reptiles) ie: Triassic
    • 3. Cenozoic Era (Age of Birds & Mammals) ie: tertiary & quaternary
  12. Sedgewick's Eras w/order from early to present
    • Paleozoic (542-251mil y) - age of fish
    • Mesozoic (251-65mil y) - age of reptiles
    • Cenozoic (65mil-present) - age of birds & mammals
  13. Charles Lyell
    • Uniformitarianism idea: Contemporary processes occurring gradually may have taken millions of years (maintain geol processes & living species in equal)
    • Stabilizing SELECTION: species could migrate & envir pressure would influence changes in species to allow for survival!
    • REJECTED Curvier's catastrophism & progressionism
    • AGREE w/Curvier that if species did NOT migrate, would go EXTINCT
  14. Charles Darwin
    • 1. Abiogenesis: abiotic origin of life (life originates from non-living sources) BUT agreed w/Pasteur that present day conditions do NOT allow for spontaneous generation
    • 2. All life on earth shares common ancestor: including animals, plants & single celled org.
    • 3. Mechanisms of change due to NATURAL SELECTION
    • 4. Gradualism
    • 5. Sympatric speciation more common than allopatric speciation (evolving due to different area-finches in Galapagos)
    • 6. Anagenesis (single ancestor evolve into single descendent) more common than cladogenesis (ancestors and descendents BOTH exist at same time)
    • 7. Hybrid sterility closely related to Species, NOT due to natural selection
  15. Darwin's Natural Selection theory
    • 1. all species have variability of species
    • 2. species can reproduce in greater #s than world can sustain, so NOT all offspring survive
    • 3. Survival of ind. w/in species not random (if more adapted, will survive in greater #'s) - opposed to Lamarck idea, probe due to Darwin's upbringing in an aristocratic society
    • 4. As better adapted survive, eventually they evolve to become a new species
  16. Gregor Mendel
    Mendel's law in hybridization: Explanation for DISCRETE inheritance in Changing PHENOTYPES
  17. Francis Galton
    Evolutionary Change gradual (gradualism) by Blending inheritance over long periods
  18. Alfred Russel Wallace
    • Evolution by natural selection (ind formulated from Darwin)
    • DISAGREED w/Darwin on following:
    • Divine creationish: thought everything BUT humans could evolve from natural origins
    • thought Species identification was objective, vs. Darwin who thought it was arbitrary
    • Origin of hybrid sterility is important factor of maintaining species, vs. Darwin who thought it was a random occurrence
  19. Henry Walter Bates
    Batesian Mimicry: ie w/butterflies of similar colors, some harmless and some used to warn predators of poison. Harmless butterflies adapted to appear as poisonous to predators
  20. Thomas Huxley
    • Darwin's bulldog - debator
    • Hypothesized BIRDS evolved from DINOSAURS
    • Agreed w/Lamarck's theory on hybrid sterility, did not see Darwin's argument for this
  21. Ernst Haeckl
    • 1st to construct 3 KINGOM taxonomy (adding protista to Aristotle's 2 kingdom)
    • 1. protista
    • 2. plantae
    • 3. animalia
  22. Hugo de Vries
    • rediscovered Mendel's law for discrete inheritance
    • coined term MUTATION for sudden GENETIC changes (ie: roses producing different colors) w/recessive and dominant traits
    • Saltationism: OPPOSED Darwin & Lamarck, by saying these mutations could account for evolutionary change
  23. Wilhelm Johannsen
    • Showed failure of artificial selection to alter uniform morphology of clonal plants
    • Coined term GENE, GENOTYPE, PHENOTYPE
  24. William Bateson
    • Supported Saltationism mech. of evolution
    • coined GENETICS - process of studying genotypes & phenotypes
  25. Wilhelm Weinberg
    Co-discovered Hardy-Weinberg law that (absence of evolution change) population will have same pheno & geno freq & same allele freq
  26. Thomas Hunt Morgan
    • GENE theory of chromosomal inheritance: saw traits were coded by structures on chromosome (looked @ flies & breed to generate white eye flies)
    • Identified region on sex determining chromosome
  27. Herman Nilsson-Ehle
    mix of discrete inheritance (Mendelian) and continuous inheritance
  28. GH Hardy
    Co-Discovered Hardy-Weinberg law (p2 + 2pq + q2=1, p=dominant, q=recessive)
  29. Sewall Wright
    • "Neutralist school"
    • role of RANDOM factors in speciation (due to genetic drift, gene flow & non-random mating)
    • ie - emigration: high-->low pop density (cause decrease in abundance of alleles)
    • immigration: low --> high pop density
  30. RA Fisher
    • "Selectionist school"
    • Adaptive Factors during speciation
    • developed ANOVA test for determining if stat diff exist b/w results
  31. Herman Muller
    • Nobel Prize: X-Ray radiation causes DNA breaks - if in coding region would cause LETHAL mutation
    • Muller-Dobzhansky incompatibility: as you add more & more genes, probability of compatibility will DECREASE
  32. JB S Haldene
    • "balanced school of thought"
    • Sex selection & competition of genes important in speciation
    • Saw heterogenetic (ie: XY in males) as more severe in ref. to hybrid sterility
  33. Theodosins Dobzhansky
    • Distinction b/w PRE & POST zygotic isolating mechanisms b/w species
    • PRE zygotic isolation barriers: Behavioral barriers, Location barriers, Gametic Barriers
    • POST zygotic isolation (order of severe to less severe):
    • hybrid inviability (zygote doesn't survive)
    • Hybrid sterility (ie-mule)
    • F2 hybrid breakdown (2nd generation inviable..ie - Egyptian cotton)
    • Behavioral F1 inferiority (ie - wolves & coyotes, even if mate, hybrid offspring not socially accepted into packs of either type)
  34. Dobzhansky's isolating mechanisms
    • 1. Prezygotic barriers
    • Geographic
    • Temporal
    • Habitat
    • Behavioral
    • Gametic
    • Mechanical
    • 2. Postzygotic barriers
    • Hybrid Inviability
    • Hybrid Sterility
    • F2 Hybrid breakdown
    • F1 Behavioral Inferiority
    • F1 Ecological Inferiority (grass growing in soil containing metal)
  35. George Gaylord Simpson
    Anagenesis & Cladogenesis observed in FOSSIL records
  36. Ernst Mayr
    • 1. Biological species concept SUPERIOR to all other species def.
    • 2. Allopatric speciation (species change due to geo change) more common than para or sympathetic speciation
    • 3. Cladogenesis more common than Anogenesis
    • 4. Found PERIPATRIC speciation - involves GENETIC drift and NATURAL selection´┐Ż. when sub-population isolated from ancestral pop - usually smaller in size, less diversity of alleles (emigration) results in change of species
    • says Peripatric speciation more common than phyletic gradualism during origin of species
  37. George Stebbins
    • High freq of polyploidy in natural plant population
    • allopolyploidy: due to fusion b/w 2 pop. (ie - peanuts originated by allopolyploidy)
  38. Order of evolutionary discovery ppl
    • Anaximander of Miletus
    • Emedoeles of Acragas
    • Plato
    • Aristotle
    • John Ray (species based on ancestry & morph)
    • Carlos Linnaeus (morph ideas - hom struc)
    • Georges Louis Leclerc (BSC)
    • James Hutton (Uniformit)
    • Jean-Baptist Lamarck
    • Georges Cuvier (divine creation)
    • Adam Sedgwick (eras)
    • Charles Lyell (uniformit & stab selection - changing enviro & migration to allow change in species)
    • Charles Darwin
    • Gregor Mendel (discrete inheritance)
    • Francis Galton (gradualism)
    • Alfred Russel Wallace (diff hybrid sterility thought than Darwin)
    • Henry Walter Bates (batesian mimicry)
    • Thomas Huxley (Darwin's bulldog, birds from dinosaurs)
    • Ernst Haeckl (3kingdom tax)
    • Hugo de Vries (mutation, saltationism accounts for evolutionary change)
    • Wilhelm Johannsen (genes, genotype, phenotype)
    • William Bateson (coined genetics)
    • Wilhelm Weinberg
    • Thomas Hunt Morgan (flies, gene theory of chrom inheritance)
    • Herman Nilsson-Ehle (mix of discrete & continuous inheritance)
    • GH Hardy
    • Sewall Wright (neutralist)
    • RA Fisher (selectionist)
    • Herman Muller (x-ray & muller & Dobzhansky-more genes=less compatible)
    • JB S Haldene (balanced school, heterogene severe in hybrid sterility)
    • Theodosins Dobzhansky (pre&post zygotic barriers)
    • George Gaylord Simpson (clado & ango in fossil records)
    • Ernst Mayr (BSC, allopatric, clado, peripatric spec)
    • George Stebbins (polyploidy)

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