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  1. Oxidation number of O
  2. HCO3- reaction with H+ or OH-
    HCO3- +H+ yields CO2(g) + H2O(l)
  3. CO32- reaction with H+ or OH-
    CO32- + 2H+ yields CO2(g) + H2O(l)
  4. HSO3- reaction with H+ or OH-
    HSO3- + H+ yields SO2 (g) + H2O(l)
  5. SO32- reaction with H+ or OH-
    SO32- + 2H+ yields SO2 (g) + H2O(l)
  6. HS- reaction with H+ or OH-
    HS- + H+ yields H2S(g)
  7. S2- reaction with H+ or OH-
    S2- + 2H+ yields H2S(g)
  8. NH4+ reaction with H+ or OH-
    NH4+ + OH- yields NH3 (g) + H2O(l)
  9. the oxidation number of a free element is always
  10. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion equals the
    charge of the ion
  11. The oxidation number of oxygen in compounds is
  12. The oxidation number of a Group IA element in a compound is
  13. The oxidation number of a Group 2A element in a compound is
  14. The oxidation number of a Group 7A element in a compound is
  15. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all of the atoms in a neutral compound is
  16. The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is equal to
    the charge of the ion
  17. The oxidation number of Hydrogen when bonded to a nonmetal
  18. The oxidation number of Hydrogen
    when bonded to a metal
  19. Electrolytes
    attraction between ion and water is greater that attraction between cation and anion
  20. Strong electrolytes
    • dissolve in water and produce ions
    • strong acids and strong bases (group 1A and 2A are strong bases if they dissolve in water)
    • HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4
  21. nonelectrolytes
    • do not dissolve in water (no polar bonds)
    • cations and anion stay together
    • do dissolve in water but give no ions (sugars and esters and polar OH bonds interact with water)
  22. Weak electrolytes
    • weak base, not all will seperate to form ions
    • HF, NH3, Carboxylic acid (HC2H3O2)
  23. Precipitation Reactions
    two soluble compounds react to form an insoluble product
  24. Driving Force
    removal of ions from solution of a preciptate (as gas or H2O)
  25. Total Ionic Equation
    shows soluble substances that ionize or dissociate as ions
  26. Spectator ions
    ions not involved in chemical change
  27. net ionic equation
    elinimates spectator ions and shows actual chemical change
  28. Neutralization
    occurs when an acid reacts with a base
  29. Polyprotic acids
    contain more than one ionizable proton
  30. Strong acid-base reaction
    dissociate completely into ions when dissolved in water
  31. weak acid-base reactions
    dissociate very little in water
  32. Driving force of an acid-base reaction
    • electrostatic attraction of ions and their removal from their solution
    • formation of water and salt
  33. Titration
    process whereby one solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution containing the analyte
  34. Titrant
    known concentration
  35. Analyte
    Unknown concentration
  36. Titration Indicator
    substance that changes color at the endpoint
  37. titration: equivalence point
    stoichiometrically equivalent amounts of titrant and analyte present (moles H+=moles OH-)
  38. titration endpoint
    where indicator changes color (slight excess of titrant present)
  39. Redox Reaction
    electron transfer reaction
  40. Oxidation
    • LEO
    • loss of electrons
    • increases in oxidation number
  41. Oxidizing agent
    • takes on electrons
    • undergoes reduction
  42. Reduction
    • GER
    • gains electrons
    • decresases in oxidation number
  43. Reducing Agent
    • gives away electrons
    • undergoes oxidation
  44. Oxidation Number
    number used to keep track of which species loses electrons and which species gains them
  45. Ionic compounds
    oxidation numbers for elements (ions) usually equals ionic charge
  46. Covalent Compounds
    oxidation numbers more dependent upon other species in compound
  47. Commonly used oxidizing agents
    MnO4 and Cr2O7
  48. naming equations: classical system
    use metallic root plus suffix to indicate oxidation state of cation
  49. naming equations: classical system: ion with lower charge
  50. naming equations: classical system: ion with higher charge
  51. arrhenius acid
    • H conatining molecular compound that yields H+ when dissolved in water
    • ex: HCl
  52. arrhenius base
    • OH containing compound that yields OH- when dissolved in water
    • ex: NaOH
  53. salt
    ionic compound formed when a base and an acid undergo neutralization
  54. binary acids
    • formed when some gaseous compounds dissovle in water
    • prefix+nonmetal root+suffix+acid
    • Hydrochloric acid
  55. Oxoacids
    • acids of oxoanions
    • oxoanion root+suffix+acid
    • nitrous acid
  56. Oxoacids: "ate" in anion becomes
  57. oxoacids: "ite" in anion becomes
  58. molecular mass
    sum of atomic masses of elements in a covalent compound (mass of a molecule)
  59. Formula Mass
    sum of atomic masses of elements in an ionic compound
  60. unit usually used to express molar mass
    grams (g)
  61. unit usually used to express formula mass
    Daltons (D) or amu
  62. mass percent
    = (mass of A/mass compound) * 100
  63. Molecular Formula can be determined if
    the molar mass and the empirical formula are known
  64. equation to find molecular formula
    = (molecular mass/empirical formula mass) * empirical formula
  65. Combustion
    compound + O2 yields CO2 + H2O
  66. Hydrocarbons
    compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen
  67. alkanes
    • saturated hydrocarbons
    • maximum number of H atoms
    • contains only single bonds
    • ___ane
  68. Alkenes
    • unsaturated hydrocarbons
    • less than maximum number of H atoms
    • at least one double bond
    • ____ene
  69. meth
  70. prop
  71. pent
  72. hept
  73. eth
  74. but
  75. hex
  76. oct
  77. non
  78. dec
  79. Alkynes
    • unsaturated hydrocarbon
    • less than maximum H atoms
    • contains at leas one carbon-carbon triple bond
    • ___yne
  80. Alcohols
    • functionalized hydrocarbon
    • OH (hydroxyl group)
    • uses word stem to indicate number of carbon atoms plus suffix "ol"
    • ___anol
  81. Carboxylic Acids
    • hydrocarbon
    • COOH
    • in water yield H+
    • weak acid
    • name: uses Latin root plus "ic" suffix
    • ___anoic acid
  82. Amines
    • hyderocarbon
    • NH2
    • in water yield OH-
    • weak base
    • name: uses word stem to indicate number of carbon atoms plus "amine"
    • ___ylamine
  83. Stoichiometry
    calculating amounts of reactants and products
  84. Steps for stoichiometry problems
    • 1) write balanced equation
    • 2) convert amount of a given substance to moles
    • 3) set up and perform conversion
    • 4) convert result to desired unit
  85. limiting reactant
    reactant that determines how much product can be produced
  86. steps for limiting reactant problems
    • write balanced equation and overall equation if applicable
    • determine limiting reactant
    • relate each reactant given to product formed or relate one reactant to other reactant
  87. percent yield
    (actual yield/theoretical yield) * 100
  88. overall percent yield
    (%yield A/100) * (% yield B/100) .... *100
  89. Molarity
    = moles of solute/ liters of solution
  90. Calculating reactants and products
    use same techniques but convert volume to moles of reactants using concentration as a conversion factor
Card Set
Test 2
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