Unit 7 Lilley Chpt 2

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Unit 7 Lilley Chpt 2
2011-10-15 22:27:00
Unit Lilley Chapter

Unit 7 Lilley Chapter 2
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  1. are drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual
    effects of the same drugs given alone. For example, 1+1 =2 (compare to the synergistic effects)
    Additive effects
  2. is any undesirable occurrence related to administrating or failing to administer a prescribed medication
    Adverse drug event
  3. is any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosage (as opposed to overdose)
    Adverse drug reaction
  4. is a general term for any undesirable effect that are a direct response to one or more drugs
    Adverse effects
  5. is a drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body
  6. is an immunologic hypersensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event
    Allergic reaction
  7. is a drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body. They are also called
  8. is a drug interaction in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs
    give alone (1+1 = less than 2); it is usually caused by an antagonizing (blocking or reducing) effect of one drug on another
    Antagonistic effect
  9. is a measure of the extent of drug absorption for a drug and route (from 0% to 100%)
  10. is one or more biochemical reaction involving a parent drug. It occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active. (aka metabolism)
  11. is a barrier system that restricts the passage of various chemicals and microscopic entities (e.g., bacteria, viruses) between the bloodstream and the central nervous system. It still allows for the passage of essential substances such as oxygen
    Blood-brain barrier
  12. is the name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug
    Chemical name
  13. is any condition, especially one related to a disease state or other patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable
  14. is a general name for a large class of enzymes that play a significant role in drug metabolism
  15. is a state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug
  16. is the process by which solid forms of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation
  17. is any chemical that affects the physiologic processes of a living organism
  18. is the cellular processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (e.g., the action of a drug on a receptor protein)
    Drug actions
  19. are the physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. They can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the function of the body is affected as a whole by the drug. The terms onset, peak, and duration are used to describe drug effects (most often referring to therapeutic effects)
    Drug effects
  20. is the development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs
    Drug-induced teratogenesis
  21. alteration in the pharmacologic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs; it is usually related to effects on the enzymes required for metabolism of the involved drugs
    Drug interaction
  22. the length of time the concentration of a drug in the bold or tissues is sufficient to elicit a response
    Duration of action
  23. protein molecules that catalyze one or more of a variety of biochemical reactions, including those related to the bodies own physiologic processes as
    well as those related to drug metabolism
  24. the initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream
    First-pass effect
  25. the name given to a drug by the United States adopted names council. Also called the nonproprietary name. The generic name is much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is not protected by trademark
    Generic name
  26. in pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50% (also called elimination half-life)
  27. an abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient
    Idiosyncratic reaction
  28. the characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs
  29. within a joint (eg intraarticular injections)
  30. within a sheath (eg the theca of the spinal cord, as in an intrathecal injection into the subarachnoid space)
  31. any preventable adverse drug event involving inappropriate medication use by a patient or health care professional; it may or may not cause patient
    Medication error
  32. the prescribing, dispensing, and administering of medications, and the monitoring of their effects
    Medication use process
  33. a chemical form of a drug that is the product of one or more biochemical (metabolic) reaction involving the parent drug
  34. are those that have pharmacologic activity of their own, even if the parent drug is inactive
    Active metabolites
  35. lack pharmacologic activity and are simple drug waste products awaiting excretion from the body (eg via the urinary, gastrointestinal, or respiratory tract)
    Inactive metabolites
  36. the time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing
    Onset of action
  37. the chemical form of a drug that is administered before it is metabolized by the body’s biochemical
    reactions into its active or inactive metabolites
    Parent drug
  38. A parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself is called a
  39. A parent drug that is not pharmacologically active itself is called a prodrug. A prodrug is then metabolized to pharmacologically
    active metabolites
  40. the time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body
    Peak effect
  41. the maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
    Peak level
  42. the science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage from design
  43. the study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs and their sites of activity. It examines the physicochemical properties of drugs and their pharmacologic interactions with body receptors
  44. the study of the influence of genetic factors on drug response, including the nature of genetic aberrations that results in the absence, overabundance, or insufficiency of drug-metabolizing enzymes
  45. the study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources
  46. the rate of drug distribution among various body compartments after a drug has entered the body. It includes the phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
  47. the broadest term for the study or science of drugs
  48. the treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs
  49. an inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body
  50. a molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. They bind specific substances (eg drug
    molecules), and one or more corresponding cellular effects (drug actions) occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction
  51. the physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose
    Steady state
  52. substances (eg drugs or natural biochemical in the body) on which enzymes act
  53. drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone. For example
    1+1 is greater than 2 (compared with additive effects)
    Synergistic effects
  54. the process of measuring drug peak and trough levels to gauge the level of a patient’s drug exposure and allow adjustment of dosages with the goals of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity
    Therapeutic drug monitoring
  55. the desired or intended effect of a particular medication
    Therapeutic effect
  56. the ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug
    Therapeutic index
  57. reduced response to a drug after prolonged use
  58. the quality of being poisonous (ie injurious to health or dangerous to life)
  59. the condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities
  60. the study of poisons, including toxic drug effects and applicable treatment
  61. the commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer; also called the proprietary name
    Trade name
  62. the lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring
    Trough level