Nutrition 1 powerpoints
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Nutrition 1 powerpoints
cards for test 1
Philosophy on nutrition
natural is better
basic science on nutrition
what is the hierarchy of research evidence? (lowest to highest)
animal research/labroratory studies, editorials/opinions, case reports, case series, case-control studies, cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic review
what do observational studies find?
associatios between behaviors and health
what are examples of observational studies?
case-control, cross-sectional, cohort
what do intervention studies look at?
effects of treatments
what is an example of an intervention study?
what disease is most affected by increased BMI?
what data do you collect to evaluate weight?
when is weight loss recommended?
BMI= 30 or more
health risk and a BMI of 25-30
health risk and big waist circummference
what are the genetic factors causing an obesity epidemic?
fat storage to avoid starvation
obese body type
what are the environmental factors leading to an obesity epidemic?
high fat and sugar foods available everywhere
what are the behavioral/psychological problems causing an obesity epidemic?
eating habits not associated with appetite
eating because of emotions/stress
psychological disorders causing overeating
most fat is what?
what makes up 95% of dietary lipids?
healthy fats are?
unsaturated= mono and
polyunsaturated fats consist of what 2 groups?
omega-3 and omega-6
what are unhealthy fats?
saturated and trans-unsaturated
how are trans-unsaturated fats made?
from partial hydrogenation
what fat has the highest saturated fat?
what fat is highest in monounsaturated fat?
what fat is highest in polyunsaturated fats?
chia seed oil
what fat is highest in omega-3 fats?
chia seed oil
what fat is highest in omega-6 fats?
what fat is highest in trans-fats?
stick soy bean oil margarine
produced by the intestinal cells
delivers dietary triglycerides to adipose and muscle via lipoprotein lipase in the capillaries
problems are uncommon
leftover fats from chylomicron
delivers dietary cholesterol to the liver via receptor mediated uptake
produced by the liver
contains endogenous cholesterol and triglycerides
delivers triglycerides and adipose to muscle via lipoprotein lipase
problems are common
leftover of VLDL
contains endogenous cholesterol
either taken up into liver by receptor or turned into LDL
develops from IDL
delivers cholesterol to tissues or is taken up by the liver
abnormalities are common since numbers are raised by trans and saturated fats
empty HDL secreted by the liverruns around collecting cholesterol from tissues and other lipoproteins and returns it to the liver
low levens commonly found (bad)
healthy level of LDL
healthy level of HDL
healthy level of triglycerides
sources of liver cholesterol
dietary (chylomicron remnants)
de novo synthesis
HDLs, LDLs, IDLs
how cholesterol leaves the liver
free cholesterol in bile
converted to bile acids/salts
roles of the liver
takes up cholesterol from chylomicron remnant
dietary glucose -> triglycerides
makes VLDL and HLD
regulates de novo cholesterol and biliary disposal
diet is calculated by:
% carbohydrates + % fat + % protein
effect of mono and polyunsaturated fats on cholesterol levels
decreased LDL, increased HDL
effects of saturated fats on cholesterol levels
increases LDL and HDL
effects of trans fats on cholesterol levels
effects of substituting a carb with a good fat
stabilizes total cholesterol and LDL level
increases HDL levels
decreases triglyceride levels
effects of substituting a saturated fat with a good fat
decreased LDL level
stabelizes HDL and triglyceride levels
decreases risk of thrombosis
decreases risk of cardiac arrhythmia
sources of monounsaturated fats
sources of omega-6 fats
sources of omega-3 fats
what type of fat increases your risk of heart disease?
diets allowing what type of fats show a decrease in vascular disease
is there a correlation between overall fat and cancer?
there is an increased/decreased risk of breast cancer from eating what fats?
animal fat (increased)
olive oil (decreased)
there is an increased risk of colon cancer from eating what fats?
red meat and processed meats
add a 2 carbon pair
inserts a double bond
what determins which EFAs are found in the body?
diet and supplements
what is the ratio for EFAs in the western diet?
10:1 favoring omega-6
what is the ratio for EFAs in a natural diet?
are short or long chain EFAs found more commonly in the body?
how are most short EFAs provided?
through the diet
is arachidonic acid production high or low?
low (good thing!)
is long chain omega-3 production high or low in the body?
membrane structure and function
gene expression regulation
how do EFAs assist in membrane structure and function? (which EFA?)
influcence receptor function, membrane permeability, signal transduction, transport proteins
which EFA helps with vision?
which EFA helps with the nervous system?
DHA and AA
what are the effects of eicosanoid synthesis
smooth muscle activity
what are the effects of EFA on gene expression regulation?
fatty acid metabolism
what are the precursors to eicosanoids?
DGLA, AA, EPA
cyclooxygenase produces which eicosanoid?
lipoxygenase produce which eicosanoids?
eicosanoids produced from DGLA have what effects?
eicosanoids produced from AA have what effects?
smooth muscle contraction
eicosanoids produced from EPA have what effects?
primary and secondary prevention with omega-3s for vascular disease showed reduced risk of:
define EFA deficiency
define EFA insufficiency
what is the most likely way to end up with EFA deficiency?
what are signs of EFA deficiency?
reduced resistance to infection
what insufficiency is common?
sources of linoleic acid?
vegetable oils, nuts, seeds
sources of gamma-linolenic acid?
sources of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid?
source of arachadonic acid?
source of linolenic acid?
flax, walnuts, canola oil, soy bean oil
sources of EPA and DHA?
what safety issues do you need to be concerned about with supplements?
gastrointestinal distress when taking high levels
anti-clotting effects of fish oils
drug interactionscontaminants in fish (and fish oils)
what can you do to limit your amount of contaminants in fish?
aboid the large, hazardous species
prepare and cook to remove the fatty residues
what contaminants are found in fish? what part of the fish are they found in?
polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat
nut intake is shown to do what?
reduce the risk of heart disease
reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes
intake of seeds is show to do what?
lower inflammatory mediators
modify hormone function
what are the main health promoting fat sources?
natural unprocessed oils
uncontaminated oily fish and fish oils
nuts and seeds