Unit 7 Lilley Chpt 39

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Unit 7 Lilley Chpt 39
2011-10-16 01:22:32
Unit Lilley Chapter 39

Unit 7 Lilley Chapter 39
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  1. dependent killing – A property of some antibiotics, especially aminoglycosides, whereby achieving a relatively high plasma drug concentration, even if briefly, results in the most effective bacterial kill (compare time-dependent killing)
  2. A group of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some organisms that make the organism resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) and aztreonam. Patients infected by such organisms must be in contact isolation, and
    proper hand washing is key to preventing the spread of the infections
    Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBLs)
  3. an enzyme first found in isolates of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumonia that renders the organism resistant to all carbapenem antibiotics as well as beta-lactam antibiotics and monobactams. Such organisms produce a very serious resistant infection
    Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)
  4. a strain of staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to the beta-lactamase penicillin known as methicillin. Originally, the abbreviation MRSA referred exclusively to methiciliin-resistant S. aureus. It is now used more commonly to refer to strains of S. aureus that are resistant to several drug classes, and therefore, depending on the context or health facility, it may also stand for “multidrug-resistant
    S. aureus
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
  5. one millionth of a gram. Be careful not to confuse with milligram (one thousandth of a gram), which is a thousand times greater than 1 microgram. Confusion of these two units sometimes results in drug dosage errors
  6. A laboratory measure of the lowest concentration of a drug needed to kill a certain standardized amount
    of bacteria
    Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC)
  7. bacteria that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial drugs. These include multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms, and Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-producing organisms
    Multidrug-resistant organism
  8. toxicity to the kidneys, often drug induced
    and manifesting as compromised renal function
  9. toxicity to the ears, often drug induced and manifesting as varying degrees of hearing loss that is more likely to be permanent than the impaired renal function resulting from nephrotoxicity
  10. a period of continued bacterial suppression that occurs after brief exposure to certain antibiotic drug
    classes, especially aminoglycosides and carbapenems
    Postantibiotic Effect
  11. a necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy. Some antibiotics (e.g. clindamycin) are more likely to produce it than others. A more general term that is also used is antibiotic-associated colitis
    Pseudomembranous Colitis
  12. drug interaction in which the bacterial killing effect of two antibiotics given together is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone
    Synergistic Effect
  13. ongoing monitoring of plasma drug concentrations and dosage adjustment based on these values as well as other laboratory indicators such as kidney and liver function test results; it is often carried out by a pharmacist in collaboration with medical, nursing, and laboratory staff
    Therapeutic Drug monitoring
  14. a property of most antibiotic classes whereby prolonged high plasma drug concentrations are required for effective bacterial kill
    Time-dependent killing
  15. Enterococcus species that are resistant to beta-lacam antibiotics and vancomycin. Most commonly refers to Enterococcus faecium
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)