Pharm test 2

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Pharm test 2
2011-10-17 13:15:02

Test 2
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  1. cimetidine (tagament)
    suppress acid secretion by blocking H2 receptors on parietal cells of stomach

    anti-adrogenic effect

    first available

    Oral, IM, IV

    up to 12 weeks to heal ulcer

    used to treat ulcers, GERD, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, aspiration, pneumonitis, heartburn, indigestion
  2. Ranitidine (Zantac)
    Suppresses acid secretion by blocking H2 receptors on parietal cells of the stomach

    side effects: uncommon, doesn't cross BBB well

    more potent than cimetidine
  3. famotidine (pepcid)
    suppresses acid secretion by blocking H2 receptors on parietal cells of the stomach
  4. Omeprazole

    prodrug that converst to active form in parietal cells of stomach

    inhibits enzyme that generates gastric acid

    used to treat ulcers, GERD, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

    may contribute to development of gastric tumors
  5. Lansoprazole (prevacid)
    suppresses acid secretion by inhibiting H+, K+ ATPase (enzyme that makes gastric acid)

    side effects: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain
  6. Sucralfate (carafate)
    creates a protective barrier over ulcer to protect against acid and pepsin

    given q6h (30 min ac and hs)

    few side effects, minimal systemic absorption
  7. misoprotosol (cytotec)
    enhances mucosal protectant

    stimulates secretions of mucus and bicarbonate while maintaining submucosal blood flow and suppression of gastric acid

  8. Antacids
    used for peptic ulcers and GERD

    neutralizes acid

    dosing usually 7x per day
  9. calcium carbonate
    reacts w/ gastric acid to form neutral salts

    side effects: constipation, diarrhea, sodium loading
  10. Phenergan (promethazine)
    acts on blood vessels, GI, and respiratory system by competing w/ histamine for H1 receptor site

    decreases allergic response by blocking histamine

    acts on CTZ to decrease vomitting

    has anticholinergic response

    lots of side effects

    Black box: infants, intra-arterial use, neonates, SQ use (necrosis), children (respiratory)
  11. Lomotil (diphenoxylate w/ atropine)

    inhibits gastric motility by acting on mucosal receptors responsible for peristalsis

    paralytic ileus, toxic megacolon
  12. Immodium (loperamide)

    direct action on intestinal m. to decrease GI peristalsis

    Electrolytes are NOT lost
  13. Zofran (ondansetron)
    first serotonin receptor approved for CINV

    prevent n/v by blocking seotonin (5-HT) peripherally, centrally, and in small intestines
  14. Cathartics
    promote prompt fluid evacuation of the bowel
  15. bulk forming laxatives
    methylcellulose, psyllium, polycarbophil

    same impact on bowel function as dietary fiber
  16. surfactant laxatives
    docusate sodium

    alter stool consistency by lowering surface tension

    inhibit fluid absorption, stimulate secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen
  17. stimulant laxatives
    bisacodyl, castor oil

    much faster effect

    treat opiod induced constipation
  18. H1 antagonist antihistamines

    increased capillary permeability

  19. H2 antihistamine
    secretion of gastric acid
  20. 1st gen antihistamines
    highly sedating
  21. 2nd gen antihistamines
    not sedating

    cross BBB poorly
  22. cromolyn
    safe and effective drug for prophylaxis of asthma but not useful for ongoing attack

    suppresses inflammation
  23. theophylline
    normal levels 5-15 mcg/ml

    carefully controlled

    death may occur at 30 mcg/ml

    absorption can be controlled by administering charcoal
  24. latanoprost
    first prostaglandin approved for glaucoma

    relaxes ciliary m.
  25. pilocarpine
    second line drug for open angle glaucoma, emergency treatment of acute closure glaucoma
  26. glucocorticoids
    first line therapy for asthma , most effective antiasthma

    usually severe asthma
  27. Amoxicillin, bismuth, flagyl
    antibiotic cocktail to treat ulcers

    disrupts cell wall and makes resistance to H. pylori