syntax

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Author:
bonganator
ID:
109262
Filename:
syntax
Updated:
2011-10-16 02:25:32
Tags:
english language metalanguage
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Description:
exam unit 1 and 2 revision
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  1. syntax
    • the order of words in a sentence, clause or a phrase
    • order of words affect the meaning of the entire sentence
  2. Phrase
    • -
    • a group of related words

    • -
    • eg – In the middle of London
  3. Clause
    • -
    • a group of related words containing a subject (noun)
    • and a predicate (verb)
  4. Independent
    (main) clause
    • -
    • clauses that convey the entire thought and is a
    • sentence on its own

    • -
    • eg – he ran a fast race
  5. Subordinate
    (dependent) clause
    • -
    • clauses that is part of another sentence and cannot
    • stand on its own

    • -
    • relative clauses and adverbial clauses
  6. Relative
    clause
    • -
    • a clause that describes a noun it is related to


    • -
    • always introduced by a relative pronoun (who, which,
    • that, where)

    • -
    • eg – The man [who did the painting] is over
    • there.
  7. adverbial clause
    • -
    • clauses that answer the questions how, when, where and
    • why

    • -
    • eg – As she entered the room, the girl screamed
    • because she saw a ghost.

    • -
    • As she entered the room: subordinate and adverbial
    • clause

    • -
    • Because she saw a ghost: adverbial clause
  8. Subject
    • -
    • the person or thing performing the verb

    • -
    • eg – The cat ate the rat
  9. Predicate
    • -
    • tells us what is the subject doing, or what has
    • happened to the subject

    • -
    • eg – Adam lives in China.

    • -
    • Eg – The girls in our office are experienced
    • instructors
  10. Simple
    sentence
    • -
    • Independent clauses
  11. Compound
    sentences
    • -
    • Made up of 2 or more simple sentences combined with a
    • conjunction or separated by a comma, semi colon or colon

    • -
    • Eg – He eats because
    • he is hungry
  12. Complex
    sentences
    • -
    • Made up of a independent and one or more relative
    • subordinate clauses
  13. Ellipsis
    • -
    • Omission of words from a sentence because the meaning
    • is implied


    Eg – [Have you] Got it?
  14. Sentence
    types (4)
    • -
    • Declarative: statements

    • o It is very
    • cold

    • -
    • Imperative: commands or requests

    • o Do not go
    • out

    • -
    • Exlamative: expresses strong feelings

    • o Gosh it is
    • cold!

    • -
    • Interrogative: questions

    • o Are you
    • cold?
  15. Intransitive
    verb
    • -
    • A verb with no direct object

    • -
    • The cook watched while they sung

    • -
    • Every single person voted

    • -
    • Mel walked for miles
  16. Transitive
    verb
    • -
    • A verb with a direct object

    • -
    • The audience watched the last episode of House
    • attentively

    • -
    • Please pass the butter

    • -
    • She plays the piano
  17. Ditransitive
    verb
    • -
    • A verb with a direct object and an indirect object

    ??
  18. Content
    words
    • Open class words
    • nouns: john, room
    • adjectives: happy, new, large
    • full verbs: search, grow, hold, have
    • adverbs: really, completely, very, also, enough
    • numerals: one, thousand, first
    • interjections: eh, urgh, phew, well
    • yes/no answers: yes no (as answers)
  19. function words
    • closed class words
    • prepositions: of, at, in, without, between
    • pronouns: he, they, anybody, it
    • determiners: the, a, that, my, their, more, either, neither
    • conjunctions: and, that, because, also, yet, while, or
    • modal verbs: can, must, will, should, ought, need, used
    • auxillary verbs: be, is, am, have, got, do,
    • particles: no, not, nor, as
  20. passive voice
    • the subject is receiving the action
    • the man was stabbed by James
  21. active voice
    • the subject is doing the action
    • the man stabbed James

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