Ch. 18 Evidence
Card Set Information
Ch. 18 Evidence
Those resulting from unintentional acts or omissions (failures to act).
Things such as lightning, spontaneous heating, & friction between dehydrating logs on top of each other.
Leading cause of fire loss.
Cause of 1 out of 8 fire deaths
With criminal intent
The three factors to the cause of fires
Fuel that ignited
Form & source of heat ignition
Act or omission that helped to bring these two factors together
Chain of Custody
The continuous changes of possesion of physical "evidence" that must be established in court to admit such material into evidence.
What should FF's be able to recognize?
Signs of area of origin
Signs of arson
Preserve signs of arson
Locate fire's origin
Recognize possible fire causes
Point of Origin
The exact physical location where the heat source & fuel come into contact with each other and a fire begins.
In most cases who has the legal responsibilty for determing the cause of the fire?
The fire chief
Who is in the best position to observe signs of a potential arson fire?
The first-arriving firefighters
First arriving FF's should make mental notes of the following:
Vehicles & people present
Status of doors & windows
Evidence of forced entry
Contents of the room
Indications of unusual fire behavior or more than one point of origin
Who may conduct arson investigations?
Other members of fire prevention bureau
*Fire investigators are also sworn peace officers that can carry weapons & make arrests.
When does a FF begin gathering information?
When the alarm is received
Oberservations En Route
Time of day
: Normal behavior for time
Weather & natural hazards
: Should furnace be on?
: Blocking streets, driveways, entrances
People leaving the scence
: Leaving in a hurry
Observations Upon Arrival
Time of arrival & extent of fire
Wind directions & velocity
Doors or windows locked or unlocked
Location of fire
Containers or cans
Familiar faces (from other fires)
Observations During Fire Fighting Operations
Abnormal fire behavior with water
: Flame splattering
Obstacles hindering fire fighting
Incendiary devices (Molitov Cocktails)
Combustible material, such as rolled rags, blankets, newspapers, or flammable liquids.
Used to spread fire from one area to another.
Material or chemicals designed & used to start a fire.
Observations During Fire Fighting Cont'd
Availabilty of documents
Fire detection & protections systems
Location of fire
How is valuable information sometimes found on a fire scene?
By allowing owners or occupants to be allowed to talk freely.
Should FF's attempt to interrogate a potenial arson suspect?
Not unless they are trained to do so
What is a sufficient reply to questions regarding a fire?
" The fire is under investigation."
Who should FF's make their statement to?
The investigator only
Evidence presented by a witness who did not see or hear the incident in question but heard about it from someone else.
When members of a group discuss the events and come to a concensus about what happened.
Should hearsay be reported?
Yes, it should be reported to the investigator for validation.
What is a way to help preserve evidence?
Delaying overhaul operations
FF's should keep a log of anyone who enters the scence with the following information:
Time of entry
Time of departure
Any items the person took
What should rope or tape used for cordoning off an area never be tied to?
A vehicle that may have to be moved
What case is responsible for FF's to obtain a search warrant once they leave a scene?
Michigan vs. Tyler
* If there is incendiary evidence at least one FF should remain at scene until an investigator arrives
When can evidence be disturbed at a scence?
When absolutely necassary for the extinguishment of a fire
What is a good way to preserve footprints?
By placing carboard over them.
Where is a good place to dump debris after an investigation?
On inexpensive tarps.