MT Exam #3 - Ch. 9

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gadgetJC
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MT Exam #3 - Ch. 9
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2011-10-16 22:15:30
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Orthopedics Muscles
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Orthopedics - Muscles
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  1. muscle
    structure that produces movement in the body
  2. muscular system/musculoskeletal system
    sytem that provides movement for the body in conjunction with support from the bone.
  3. musculature
    group of skeletal muscles in one body part or the muscles in the body as a whole
  4. skeletal muscle
    the only type of muscle in the body under voluntary control. Move bone. contract and relax in response to conscious thought.
  5. apneurosis
    flat, wide, white sheet of fibrous connective tissue that attaches as a muscle to a bnoe or other structure
  6. belly of the muscle
    area of greatest mass, usually hte center of the muscle midway between teh origin and insertion
  7. bursa
    sac of synovial membrane that contains synoival fluid. decreases friction where a tendon rubs against a bone near a synovial joint.
  8. fascia
    thin connective tissue sheet around each muscle fascicle and around the muscle itself. merges to become part of the tendon
  9. insesrtion
    where the tendon of a muscle ends on a bone that moves as the muscle contracts or relaxes
  10. origin
    where the tendon of a muscle begins and is attached to a stationary or nearly stationary bone
  11. retinaculum
    thin, nearly translucent band of fibrous tissue and fascia that holds down tendons that cross the wrist and ankle
  12. tendon
    cordlike white band of nonelastic fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
  13. abduction
    moving a body part away from the midline.
  14. abductor
    muscle that produces abdution when it contracts (moves insertion away from midline)
  15. adduction
    moving a body part toward the midline.
  16. adductor
    muscle that produces adduction when it contracts (moves insertion towards the midline)
  17. eversion
    turning a body part outward and toward the side.
  18. evertor
    muscle that produces eversion when it contracts (moves insertion outward and toward the side)
  19. extension
    straightening and extending a joint to incease the angle between two bones or two body parts.
  20. extensor
    muscle that produces extension when it contracts (straightens and extends joint to increase angle between two bones or two body parts)
  21. flexion
    bending of a joint to decrease the angle b/t two bones or two body parts.
  22. flexor
    muscle that produces flextion when it contracts (decreases angle between 2 bones or 2 body parts)
  23. inversion
    turning a body part inward
  24. invertor
    muscle that produces inversion when it contracts (turns body part inward)
  25. pronation
    turning the palm of the hand posteriorly or downward.
  26. pronator
    muscle that produces pronation when it contracts (turns palm of hand poseriorly or downward)
  27. rotation
    moving a body part around its axis
  28. rotator
    muscle that produces rotation when it contracts (moves a body part around its axis)
  29. supination
    turning the palm of the hand anteriorly or upward.
  30. supinator
    muscle that produces supination when it contracts (turns the palm of the hand anteriorly or upward)
  31. buccinator muscle
    muscle at the side of the face that moves the cheek
  32. frontalis muscle
    muscle of the forehead that moves the forehead skin and eyebrows
  33. masseter muscle
    muscle of the side of the face that moves the mandible upward
  34. orbicularis oculi muscle
    muscle aroudn the eye that closes the eyelids
  35. orbicularis oris muscle
    muscle aroudn the mouth that closes the lips
  36. platysma muscle
    muscle of the neck that moves the mandible down
  37. sternocleidomastoid muscle
    muscle of the neck that bends teh head toward the sternum (Flexion) and turns the head to either side (rotation).

    Origin: at two muscle heads on teh sternum and clavicle

    Insertion: at the mastoid process of the temporal bone behind the ear
  38. temporalis muscle
    muscle of the side of the head that moves the mandible upward and backward
  39. deltoid muscle
    muscle of the shoulder that raises the arm and moves the arm away from the body (abduction)
  40. intercostal muscles
    muscles between the ribs that work in pairs to spread the ribs apart during inspiration and move the ribs together during forced expiration, coughing, or sneezing
  41. latissimus dorsi muscle
    muscle of the back that moves the arm posteriorly and medially toward the spinal column (adduction)
  42. pectoralis major muscle
    muscle of the chest that moves the arm anteriorly and medially across the chest (adduction)
  43. trapezius
    muscle of the shoulder that raises the shoulder, pulls the shoulder blades together, and elevates the clavicle. turns the head from side to side (rotation) and moves the head posteriorly (extension)
  44. biceps brachii
    muscle of the anterior upper arm that bends the upper arm toward the shoulder (flexion) and bends the lower arm towards the upper arm (flexion). one end of the muscle is divided into two heads
  45. brachioradialis
    muscle of the anterior lower arm that bends the lower arm toward the upper arm (flexion)
  46. extensor digitorum
    muscle that extends the fingers or toes
  47. thenar
    group of muscles in the hand that bends the thumb (flexion) and moves it toward the palm (adduction)
  48. triceps brachii
    muscle of the posterior upper arm that straightens the lower arm (extension). one end is divided into three heads.
  49. external abdominal oblique
    muscle of the abdomen that bends the upper body forward (Flexion), rotates the side of the body medially, and compresses the sides of the abdominal wall.
  50. internal abdominal oblique
    lies directly below the external abdominal oblique muscle and performs the same movements (flexion ofupper body forward, rotates the side body medially, and compresses the side of the abdominal wall) but its muscle fibers are oriented in the opposite direction
  51. rectus abdominus
    muscle of the abdomen that bends the upper body forward (flexion) and compesses the anterior abdominal wall
  52. biceps femoris
    one of the hamstring muscles.

    muscle of the posterior upper leg that moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension) and bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion). one end of the muscle is divided into two heads
  53. flexor hallucis brevis
    muscle that flexes the big toe (hallux)
  54. gastrocnemius
    muscle of the posterior lower leg that bends the foot downward (plantar flexion) and lets you stand on tiptoe
  55. gluteus maximus
    muscle of the buttocks that moves the upper leg posteriorly and rotates it laterally
  56. hamstrings
    group of muscles in the posterior aspect of the upper leg that moves the upper leg posteriorly and bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion). includes the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles
  57. peroneus longus
    muscle of the lateral lower leg that raises the lateral edge of the foot (eversion) and bends the foot downward (plantar flexion)
  58. quadriceps femoris
    group of muscles in the anterior and lateral upper leg that straightens the lower leg (extension). Includes the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscles.
  59. rectus femoris
    one of the quadricep muscles

    muscle of the anterior upper leg that bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (flexion) and straightens the lower leg (extension)
  60. sartorius muscles
    muscle fo the anterior upper leg that bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (flexion) and rotates it laterally
  61. semitendinosus
    One of the hamstrings.

    muscle of the posterior upper leg that moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension), bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion), and rotates the leg medially.
  62. semimembranosus muscle
    One of the hamstrings.

    muscle of the posterior upper leg that moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension), bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion), and rotates the leg medially.
  63. tibialis anterior
    muscle of the anterior lower leg that bends the foot up toward the leg (dorsiflexion)
  64. vastus lateralis
    one of the quadricep muscles

    muscle of the anterior upper leg that bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (Flexion) and straightens the lower leg (extension).
  65. vastus medialis
    one of the quadricep muscles

    muscle of the anterior upper leg that bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (Flexion) and straightens the lower leg (extension).
  66. acetylcholine
    neurotransmitter that initiates a muscle contraction
  67. contraction
    shortening of the length of all the muscle fibers and of the muscle itself; the opposite of relaxation
  68. fascicle
    a bundle composed of many muscle fibers, surrounded by fascia. many fascicles grouped together form a muscle
  69. hypertrophy
    an increase in the size of a muscle
  70. muscle fiber
    one muscle cell. so names because it stretches over a long distance
  71. myofibril
    section of a muscle fiber that contains thin strands (actin) and thick strands (myosin) that give it its characteristic striated appearance under a microscope.
  72. actin
    thin strand in a myofibril
  73. mysosin
    thick strand in a myofibril
  74. neuromuscular junction
    area on a single muscle fiber where a nearve cell connects to it
  75. neurotransmitter
    chemical messenger between a nerve cell and a muscle fiber.
  76. atrophy
    loss of muscle bulk in one or more muscles, caused by lack of use or malnutrition. can occur in any part of the body that is paralyzed b/c the muscles receive no electrical impulses from the nerves. (muscle wasting)
  77. avulsion
    condition in which the muscle tears away from the tendon or the tendon tears away from the bone.

    treatment: surgical repair (myorrhaphy or tenorrhaphy)
  78. compartment syndrome
    result of severe blunt or crushign injury that causes bleedign in the muscles of the leg; the fascia act as a compartment, holding the accumulating blood. increased pressure causes nerve damage & death.

    treatment: fasciotomy to allow the blood and fluid to drain out
  79. contracture
    inactivity or paralysis coupled w continuing nerve impulses that can cause an arm or leg muscle to become progressively flexed and drawn into a position where it becomes nearly immoveable.

    treatment: muscle relaxant drugs, ROM exercises
  80. fibromyalgia
    pain located at specific trigger points in the muscles of neck, back or hips - tender to touch and feel firm. cause not known, but may be related to an overreaction to painful stimuli w a possible history of prior injury or genetic predisposition. associated w/ disturbed sleep patters and maybe depression.

    treatmnet: analgesic drugs, muscle relaxant drugs, massage, and trigger pt injections w a local anesthetic
  81. hyperextension-hyperflexion injury
    injury occuring during a car accident as person's head snaps forward then back - causes muscle strain or tear, as well as damage to nerves.

    AKA acceleration-deceleration injury or whiplash

    treatment: soft cervical collar to support the neck, rest, analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflam drugs
  82. muscle contusion
    condition in which blunt trauma causes some bleeding in the muscle but doesn't break skin (bruise)

    treatment: analgesic drugs
  83. muscle spasm
    painful but temp condition w sudden, severe, involuntary and prolonged contraction of a muscle, often legs. can be brought on by overexercise (muscle cramp)

    treatment: massage, muscle relaxant drugs, analgesic drugs
  84. Torticollis
    painful spasm of the muscles on one side of the neck (wryneck)

    treatment: massage, muscle relaxant drugs, analgesic drugs
  85. Muscle strain
    overstretching of a muscle, often due to physical overexertion. causes inflammation, pain, swelling, and bruising as capillaries in the muscle tear (aka pulled muscle)

    treatment: rest, analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal anti inflam
  86. muscular dystrophy
    genetic inherited disease due to a mutation of hte gene that makes the muscle protein dystrophin. muscles weaken, then atrophy w/out dystrophin. begins in early childhood w weakness in lower extremeties, then upper. weakness of the diaphragm w an inability to beathe is most frequent cause of death. treatment; supportive care
  87. duchenne's muscular dystrophy
    most severe form of muscular dystrophy (and most common)
  88. becker's muscular dystrophy
    milder form of muscular dystrophy.
  89. myalgia
    pain in one or more muscles due to injury or muscle disease
  90. polymyalgia
    pain in several muscle groups due to injury or muscle disease
  91. myasthenia gravis
    abnormal and rapid fatigue of hte muslces, particular of face, where there is ptosis (drooping) of eyelids. Worsens during day, relieved by rest. body produces antibodies against its own acetylcholine receptors on the muscle fibers - destroy many.

    treatment: thymectomy to remove thymus; drugs that prolong the action of acetylcholine. plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from blood
  92. myopathy
    category that includes many diff diseases of the muscles
  93. myositis
    inflammation of a muscle w localized swelling and tenderness, can be caused by injury or strain

    treatment: analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflam, corticosteroid drugs
  94. polymyositis
    chronic, progressive disease that causes widespread inflammation of muscles w weakness fatigue. unknown cause, may be autoimmune

    treatment: analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflam, corticosteroid drugs
  95. dermatomyositis
    causes skin rash as well as muscle weakness and inflammation.

    treatment: analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal antiinflam, corticosteroid drugs
  96. repetitive strain injury (RSI)
    condition affecting muscles, tendons and sometimes nerves as a result of trauma caused by repetitious movements over an extended period of time. cumulative trauma disorder (CTD)

    includes tennis elbow, carpal tunnel and others

    treatment: rest, analgesic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflamm
  97. rhabdomyoma
    benign tumor that arises from muscle

    treatment: surgical excision
  98. rhabdomyosarcoma
    cancerous tumor that arises from muscle. the malignancy usually occurs in children and young adults.

    treatment: surgical excision, chemo and radiation therapy
  99. rotator cuff tear
    tear in the rotator muscles of the shoulder that surround the head of the humerus. these muscles help to abduct the arm. can result from acute trauma or repetitive overuse, particularly involving motions n which the arm is above the head.

    treatment: surgical repair
  100. rigor mortis
    as each muscle fiber dies, its stored Ca is released and this cuses the muscle fiber, then each muschle, to contract. remain contracted for about 72 hrs until fibers begin to decompose. (postmortem rigidity)
  101. ataxia
    incoordination of muscles during movement, particularly of the gait. caused by diseases of the brain or spinal cord, cerebral palsy, or an adverse rxn to a drug. (patient is ataxic)

    treatment: correct underlying; leg braces or crutches if needed.
  102. bradykinesia
    abnormally slow muscle movements or a decrease in # of spontaneous muscle movements. usually assoc w parkinson's

    treatment: drugs for parkinson's
  103. dyskinesia
    abnormal motions that occur bc of difficulty controlling the voluntary muscles. attempts at movement become tics, muscle spasms, muscle jerking (myoclonus), or slow, wandering, purposeless writhing of the hand (athetoid movements) in which some muscles of the fingers are assoc w neurological disorders.
  104. myoclonus
    muscle jerking assoc w dyskinesia
  105. athetoid movements
    purposeless writhing of the hand in which some muscles of the fingers are flexed and others are extended
  106. hyperkinesis
    abnormally increased amt of muscle movements. restlessness. can be a side affect of some drugs
  107. restless legs syndrome (RLS)
    uncomfortable restlessness and twitching of the muscles ofthe legs, particularly calf muscles, alogn w an indescribable tingling, aching or crawling-insect sensation. usually occurs at night, can interfere w sleep. exact cause unknown.

    treatment: requip, which stimulates dopamine receptors in the brain. tranqs may be of some help
  108. tremor
    small, involuntary, sometimes jerky, back and forth movements of the hands, neck, jaw or extremities. continuous and cannot be controlled by the patient. usually assoc w essential familial tremor, and inherited condition

    treatment: beta-blocker drugs

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