Western Civ.2

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jswan2002
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109365
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Western Civ.2
Updated:
2011-10-16 17:10:06
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western civ midterm notes
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Midterm Notes
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  1. What were the 5 major empires of Wesern Europe?
    • England
    • Holland
    • France
    • Portugal
    • Spain
  2. What was the nature of 4 of the 5 empires?
    The English and Spainish colonized with their own populations.

    The Portuguese and Dutch set up coastal port cities for trade.
  3. What where the most powerful social classes that formed the dominant class alliances throughout most of Western Europe in 1650? Including the King.
    • Merchants and Bankers
    • King and Landowning Nobility
  4. In 1350 what were the dominant class alliances? Including the King.
    • King
    • Landowning Nobility
    • Church
  5. What were the 5 main states that were involved in a vast number of historical changes taking place in Europe 1350-1650?
    • England
    • Holland
    • France
    • Portugal
    • Spain
  6. What were the most important social classes in Europe around 1400?
    • Church
    • Landowning Nobility, including the King
    • Peasants
    • Artisans
  7. What were the most important social classes in Europe around 1650?
    Capitalists, as well as, the working class were involved in agriculture, mining, and manufactoring. Along with merchants, bankers, self-employed shop keepers.
  8. What was the dominant social-economic system in relation to production in Western Europe in 1400?
    Feudalism
  9. What was the dominant social-economic system in relation to production in most of Western Europe in 1650?
    Capitalism.
  10. What is the dominant industry or industries, type(s) of production in 1350-1600? And what did it change into? What value does it have?
    In 1350 agriculture was the dominant industry, with ones production being for "use value" for consumption by grower and landowner.

    In 1650 it was also agriculture, but specialized agriculture. Other industries include mining, manufactoring, with the purpose of production, being for "exchange value" for private profit.
  11. Which social class appropriates the most of the wealth produced in 1350?
    • Nobility
    • Church
  12. Which social class appropriates the most of the wealth produced in 1650?
    Capitalists
  13. What was the dominant form of exchange in Western Europe 1350?
    Batering
  14. What was the dominant form of exchange in Western Europe 1650?
    Money
  15. Name one new financial and business institution in 1650?
    • Banks
    • Joint stock companies
  16. Name the type of state that existed in each of the 5 countries in Western Europe in 1350, did it change by 1650? If so what type of state did it turn into?
    In 1350 England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain were all feudal states. All remained fuedal until 1650 when England and Holland became capitalist states.
  17. Name the type of government in the 5 dominant countries in Western Europe in 1450?
    They were all monarchies.
  18. Name the type of government in the 5 dominant countries in Western Europe in 1690?
    • Portugal - monarchy
    • France and Spain - absolute monarchies
    • England - constintutional monarchy
    • Holland - republic
  19. Name the changes in the nature of military and warfare from 1350-1650?
    In 1350 there were no navies, battles happened locally, fought by small peasant armies, with simple weapons.

    In 1650 there were armies and navies, battles were fought internationally with large professional armies, with more modern weaponry.
  20. Where were the movements of people from and to in 1650?
    The farms to the cities.
  21. Name 2 technological advances from 1350-1650?
    • gun powder
    • cannons
    • ship building techniques
    • iron casting
    • printing press
  22. Name the dominant religion in Europe in 1450?
    Christianity.
  23. What religious movement in the 16th century challanged the dominant religion?
    The Protestant Reformation
  24. What is mercantilism?
    The assertion that the wealth of a nation depends on its possession of precious metals and therefore that the government of a nation must maximize the foreign trade surplus, and foster national commercial interests, a merchant marine, the establishment of colonies, etc
  25. Name the dominant economic theory in western europe in from 1500-1776, and briefly describe the restrictions and policies?
    Mercantilism

    • Tariffs
    • subsidies to manufacturing
    • subsidizing low interest loans to merchants.
  26. What century, country, and industry did capitalism first arrive?
    • 16th century
    • England
    • agriculture
  27. What is Marx's definition of social class?
    Social organisation or class is based upon social labour and social communication.
  28. What is Locke's view on value?
    Labor puts the distance in value on everything.
  29. Comparisons in Locke’s theories and our Declaration Of Independence?


    Locke's "state of nature" in which all men are equal. One of the most noticeable instances of direct influence is in our preamble.

    The Declaration of Independence establishes a Natural Law, a theory popularized by Locke with his State of Nature ideas.

    The first section of the Declaration of Independence established if it becomes necessary for one government to be abolished and another created, this process is allowed under Natural Law.

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