Neuro, Brain and spinal injuries.txt

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Anonymous
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109368
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Neuro, Brain and spinal injuries.txt
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2011-10-16 16:26:11
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Neuro Brain spinal injuries
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Neuro, Brain and spinal injuries
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  1. What is included in your Central nervous system?
    • - Brain
    • - Spinal cord (down to L3 and L4)
  2. What is included in your peripheral nervous system?
    • - voluntary
    • - involuntary
    • - motor
    • - sensory
  3. How would you know if you are using your parasympathetic Nervous system?
    - it is a relax response (either
  4. What locations do you have to know about the brain?
    • Frontal lobe - frontal bone
    • temporal lobe - temporal bone
    • occipital lobe - occipital bone
    • parietal lobe - parietal bone
  5. How does a signal get passed through the body?
    • From Axon sends a chemical through the (Synapse) empty space which helps pass the signal to the reciever (dendrites)
    • - some Axons have a milonated sheeth on them so the signal can be passed faster through the body.
  6. Whats in your cranium?
    • - Brain
    • - CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
    • - Blood vessels
  7. What is ICP?
    Intracranial pressure (pressure of brain and its contents on the skull
  8. What is CPP?
    - Pressure required to profuse brain
  9. Why must CPP be higher than ICP
    - so blood may profuse the whole brain
  10. True or False: Hypotension is not an issue when you have ICP increase?
    - False: if ICP is up and blood vessels relax, there is not enough pressure to profuse the brain (CPP)
  11. If you have hypotension and ICP increase what do you do?
    Hyperventilate the patient so EtCO2 decreases, blood vessels restrict, this reduces ICP
  12. Head Trauma: What is it called when the skull is compermised and you can see the brain?
    - Open
  13. Head Trauma: What is it called when the skull is not compermised and you can not see the brain?
    - Closed
  14. What is a liniar head fracture?
    crack in the skull that is not displaced
  15. What is a decompressed head fracture?
    a cracked section that is depressing onto the brain
  16. What is a head compound fracture?
    An open fracture where the skull is compermised and you can see the brain
  17. What are battle signs?
    Brusing behind the ears. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  18. What are raccoon eyes?
    Immidiate Black eyes. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  19. What is the secondary injury when you have a brain injury?
    Hypoxia and decreased perfusion.
  20. What are some signs and symptoms of a concussion?
    • - sometimes no visible trauma
    • - retrograde short term amnesia
    • - dizziness, headache, ringing in ears, nausea
  21. What are some signs and symptoms of a cerebral contusion?
    • - Altered LOC
    • - confusion
    • - personality changes
    • - focal neurological signs
  22. Acute Epidural Hematoma
    • - Arterial bleed
    • - initial LOC
    • symptoms - one dialated fixed pupil, increased ICP, uncoscious, paralysis, death
  23. Acute Subdural Hematoma
    • - venous bleed
    • - Altered LOC
    • - Headache
    • - Focal neurologic signs
    • HIGH RISK: Alcoholics, elderly, ppl on blood thinners
  24. Cerebral Hemorrage
    • - Arterial or venus
    • - Altered LOC
    • Symptoms - Headache, vomiting, pattern similar to stroke
  25. A reduced LOC is normally a great indicator for:
    A brain injury and increased ICP
  26. When a brain injury is suspected, what should you have ready?
    • - Suction
    • - OPA
  27. What is wrong if both eyes are swollen and not reactive?
    - Brain is very swollen
  28. What is wrong if both eyes are unilaterally dialated and reactive?
    - increasing ICP
  29. What is wrong if you have altered LOC and both eyes are unilaterally dialated and non reactive?
    - increased ICP
  30. What is wrong if you have normal LOC and both eyes are unilaterally dialated and non reactive?
    - not a brain injury
  31. Subarachnoid Space
    - between brain and dura mater
  32. Epidural
    - Between skull and dura mater
  33. Subdural
    - Between dura mater and arachnoid
  34. Intracerebral
    - inside the brain matter
  35. Decorticate posture
    • - arms flexed posture
    • - GCS of 3
  36. Decrebrate posture
    • - arms extended posture
    • - GCS of 2
  37. Increasing pulse, ~ resps and decreasing pulse means?
    • - Cerebral Herniation Syndrome
    • - herniation outweighs hypoxia
    • - must hyperventilate to restrict vessels in brain and give space to swell
    • - (AND GET TO HOSPITAL QUICK)
  38. You must hyperventilate in what circumstances?
    • - TBI, GCS<9, decerebrate posture
    • - TBI, GCS<9, dialated or non reactive pupils
    • - TBI, GCS<9, then drops another 2 points
    • **If these symptoms resolve themselves, stop hyperventilating**
  39. What are a few signs and symptoms of a spinal injury?
    • - neck and pack pain
    • - guarding (not moving)
    • - numbness and tingleing
    • - PMS check
    • - Priaprism
    • - neurogenic shock
    • - loss of bowels and bladder control
    • - deformity
  40. What must you always watch when putting a patient on a backboard?
    • - vomiting.
    • - tilt board on its side so they do not choke and aspirate their own puke
  41. Emergency rescue
    • - Pull the patient to safety by any means possible to safe their life
    • - seconds to get oout
    • - c spine is not a factor
  42. Rapid extraction
    • - you have a little longer time to place c-collar and put on backboard quickly then move to safety.
    • - 1-2 mins
  43. Subarachnoid Space
    - between brain and dura mater
  44. Epidural
    - Between skull and dura mater
  45. Subdural
    - Between dura mater and arachnoid
  46. Intracerebral
    - inside the brain matter
  47. Decorticate posture
    • - arms flexed posture
    • - GCS of 3
  48. Decrebrate posture
    • - arms extended posture
    • - GCS of 2

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