Biology 9 Chapter 9

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  1. How much of the Earth's land surface is covered by forests?
  2. What types of forests are there?
    Old-growth and second-growth forests.
  3. What are tree plantations for?
    They are reserved for clear-cutting.
  4. What do researchers hope to accomplish by putting a price tag on nature's ecologoical services?
    • They hope to alert people to three important facts:
    • 1)The earth's ecosystem services are essential for all humans and their economis
    • 2)Their economic value is huge
    • 3) They are an ongoing source of ecological income, as long as they are sustainably used
  5. What value was placed on these services?
    Because these ecological services are irreplaceable, they are infinite.
  6. What ar several ways to harvest tress?
    Erosion, invasive species, human invasion, and logging.
  7. What are three types of ways to log trees?
    Selective cutting, clear cutting, and strip cutting
  8. What types of forest fires are there? Which is less harmful?
    Surface fires and crown fires.
  9. What are the characteristics of surface fires?
    Surface fires burn undergrowth only, are cool. and have ecological benefits.
  10. What are the ecological benefits of surface fires?
    They free nutrients, relase/germinate seeds, and act as pest/disease control.
  11. What are the characteristics of crown fires?
    They burn the entire tree, and are hot.
  12. How do crown fires occur?
    From a lack of surface fires.
  13. How much has the earth's original forest cover been reduced?
    By 46% over the past 8,000 years.
  14. When has most of this loss ocurred?
    Over the past 60 years.
  15. Where has most of the deforestation occurred?
    In the tropics, due to developing countries.
  16. What percent of forsts will be intact by 2030?
  17. What years did forests stabilizie or increase? Why?
    2000-2007, due to plantations. although there was still a net loss of biodiversity.
  18. In the U.S., what percent of species is contained and how much of the nation's surface water is supplied by forests?
    ~ 80% species, and 67% of nation's surface water
  19. True/False: Forest cover is greater now than in 1920 due to second succession.
  20. How diverse is the 2nd and 3rd growth?
    Fairly diverse.
  21. True/False: More wood is cut than grown.
    False: More wood is grown than cut.
  22. What loss do tropical forests suffer?
    50,000 - 170, 000 km2/ yr
  23. What does fire do to tropical rainforests?
    It raises temperature and reduces rainfall.
  24. How can we manage and sustain fires?
    Ny emphasizing economic value, removing government subsidies, protecting old-growth, harvest = replenished, and planting trees.
  25. How are forest fires mismanaged?
    By fire suppression in all types of forests, which leads to increased amounts of underbrush and increased probability of crown fires.
  26. How can we manage forest fires?
    By prescribing fires, allowing some fires to burn, thinning vegetation from forests, thiining forests around vulnerable homes, and decreasing flammability of homes.
  27. What does the Forest Steward Council do when it certifies a forest fire?
    it makes sure environmentally sound practices are use, that there is sustainable yield harvest, minimal erosion from operations, and retention of dead wood for wildlife habitat.
  28. What are some alternatives for making paper?
    Pulp from rice straw and agricultural residues, kenaf, and hemp.
  29. What are some ways to reduce tropical deforestation?
    Debt-for -nature swaps, conservation concessions, gentler logging methods, and ecnouraging use of wood subsitutes.
  30. How should we manage and sustain grasslands?
    By controlling the number and distribution of grazing livestock, and restoring degraded grassland.
  31. What do grasslands provide?
    Important ecological grasslands.
  32. Grasslands are the second most _____ and _____ ecosystems by humans.
    Used, altered
  33. How much of the grasslands are grazed by cattle, sheep, and goats?
  34. True/False: Open grasslands are called pastures.
    False. They are called rangelands. Pastures are fenced.
  35. What is overgrazing?
    When to many animals graze for too long and exceed the carrying capacity of a rangeland area.
  36. How can we manage rangelands more sustainabliy?
    By practicing rotational grazing, fencing out riparian zone areas, suppressing invader plants.
  37. How can we suppress invader plants?
    By using herbicides, through mechanical removal, controlled burning, and short-term trampling.
  38. How should we manage and sustain parks and naure reserves?
    We need to put more resources into susataining, existing parks and nature reserves and into protecting much more of the earth's remaining undisturbed land area.
  39. How many parks are there?
    More than 1,100.
  40. What percent of pakrs is protect? What are they protected from?
    Only 1%. They are protected from local pople invading parks to survive, logging, mining, poaching.
  41. What are some of the problems that come with protecting national parks?
    There is illegal logging, mining, and wildlife poaching; most parks are too small to protect large animals; and invasion of nonnative species.
  42. What are the stresses on U.S. national parks?
    Popularity, damage from nonnative species, and the need for $6 billion for overdue repairs.
  43. U.S National Parks are threatened _____ of ______.
    islands, biodiversity
  44. How much of earth's land is protected? How much is protected from human use?
    12%; Only 5%.
  45. What is called for in the need of conservation?
    A minimum 20% of land in biodiversity reserves, and protection for all biomes.
  46. What are some solutions for protection?
    An " ecological insurance policy" for us and other species and a buffer zone around protected areas, which would be managed by locals.
  47. What has the United Nations used that principle for?
    To create 531 biosphere reserves in 105 countries.
  48. What were the Gray Wolves reduced to?
    A few hundred in the lower 48 states by 1973.
  49. Who was angered by resoration proposals?
    Ranchers, hunters, and loggers.
  50. Where were they reintroduced in in 1995? How many were there in 2005?
    In Yellowstone. 124 were there in 2008.
  51. What was the effect of reintroducing the gray wolf?
    A positive ripple effect after reintroduction.
  52. Costa Rica is a superpower of ________.
  53. How much land did Costa Rica preserve?
    25% in 8 megareserves.
  54. How did the government boost ecotourism?
    By eliminating deforestation subsidies, and paying landowners to maintain and restore tree coverage.
  55. What are the science based principles for resoration?
    Identifying/stopping the cause of degradation, reintroducing species, and protecting the area.
  56. What is restoration ecology?
    Creating new habitats where people live, work, and play in order to educate them about local species and ecosystems.
  57. How can we sustain aquatic biodiversity?
    By establishing protected sanctuaries, managing coastal development, reducing water pollution, and preventing overfishing.
  58. How fast are coastal habitats dissappearing in relation to tropical forests?
    They are dissappearing 2-10x faster than tropical forests.
  59. What will rising sea levels lead to?
    Seeing coral reefs and some low islands.
  60. How large is the ocean floor being degraded in comparison to forests being clear cut?
    It is 150x larger than areas of forests being clear-cut.
  61. What is bycatch?
    Anything caught in addition to your target.
  62. How are freshwater ecosystems being impacted?
    Dams lead to withdrawal from rivers.
  63. What is the likely extinction percent of aquatic species?
    34% for marine fish species and 71% for freshwater species.
  64. True/False: The likely extinction of aquatic species is greater than any other group of species.
  65. Define fishery.
    An area suitable for harvest.
  66. What is a fishprint?
    An area needed to sustain consumption.
  67. How much is the world being overfished?
  68. What percent of large open ocean fishes have dissappeared?
  69. Why is protection of oceans so difficult?
    Most oceans are international.
  70. What are some solutions for marine ecosystems?
    Protecting endangered and threatened species, and creating marine snctuaries/reserves.
Card Set
Biology 9 Chapter 9
Sustaining Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach
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