Clinical Micro

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Clinical Micro
2011-10-16 17:28:25
Clinical Micro Test

cards for test 1
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  1. which bacteria areaerobic gram negative coccobacilli?
    hameophilus sp., Bordetella pertussis, Brucella sp., Francisella tularensis,
  2. unique factors of Haemophilus
    • small gram negative coccobacilli
    • part of normal flora
    • require X and V factors from blood
  3. how many types of H. influenzae are there?
    6 types
  4. why is H. influenzae called influenzae?
    it was first isolated during the influenza outbreak
  5. which type of H. influenzae is most virulent?
    Type B (Hib)
  6. what is the transmission of H. influenzae?
    Respiratory transmission
  7. is H influenzae symptomatic?
    mainly no, only Hib is symptomatic
  8. what is the pathogenicity of Hib?
    • meningitis in children
    • severe sequelae
  9. what are sequelae?
    abnormal condition following or related to a previous disease
  10. what sequelae are seen with Hib?
    • deafness
    • mental retardation
    • seizures
  11. how do you diagnose Hib?
    • grow on chocolate blood agar
    • grow with a satellite system of S. aureus
    • needs both X and Y to grow
  12. how can you prevent Hib?
    • hype B capsule conjugate vaccine
    • vaccine prevents sequelae
    • dramatic reduction in childhood incidence since vaccine came out
  13. H. ducreyi
    • causes sexually transmitted disease called chancroid
    • characterized by soft, ragged painful lesion on genitals
  14. Gardnerella vaginalis
    • part of normal flora of female
    • can caus infection
  15. how do you diagnose G. vaginalis
    clue cells- epithelial cells covered with coccobacilli
  16. Bordetella pertussis
    • small gram negative coccobacilli
    • virulent strains have capsule
    • does not require X and Y
    • also fastidious requiring blood agar
  17. what are the virulence factors of B. pertussis
    • pertussis toxin
    • filamentous hemagglutinin
    • extracellular adenylate cyclase
    • endotoxin
  18. what does the pertussis toxin do?
    increase cAMP and increase insulin
  19. what is the role of the filamentous hemagglutinin?
    attach bacteria to the host cell
  20. what does the extracellular adenylate cyclase do?
    inhibits phagocytosis of the cell
  21. what is unique about the non virulent strain of B. pertussis?
    it can mutate to the virulent strain via phase shift by way of transpopon insertion
  22. what is the epidemiology of B. pertussis?
    • found worldwide
    • mainly found in children
    • droplet transmission
    • most common childhood disease in the US (often fatal)
    • vaccine decreased # of cases but on the rise again
  23. what are the two stages of pertusses?
    • catarrhal stage
    • paroxysmal stage
  24. describe the catarrhal stage of pertussis
    • sneezing
    • coughing
  25. describe the paroxysmal stage of pertussis
    • violent cough
    • "woop" on inspiration
    • increased mucus production
    • can be fatal
  26. treatment of pertussis
    antibiotics are useless in severe cases
  27. what are the two pertussis vaccines
    • whole cell vaccine
    • killed the cells
    • intense side effects
    • acellular vaccine
    • isolated virulence factors
    • reduced side effects and efficancy
  28. describe Brucella
    • non-motile
    • gram negative
    • cocoobacilli
    • all have capsule, different antigens
  29. epidemiology of brucella
    • zoonosis-no human to human transmission
    • from goats, sheep, cattle
    • transmitted via milk
    • can directly penetrate the skin