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Elastic fibers can be highlighted with which stains?
- Orcein (deep blue).
- Verhoeffs Van Gieson (brown-black).
- Resorcin-fuchsin (blue-black).
Hyaluronic acid. Where is it found? Purpose?
- Extracellular matrix. Synovial fluid. Vitreous humor.
- Lubricant and shock absorber.
Chondroitin sulfate. Where is it found? Function?
- Cartilage and bone. Heart valves.
- Major component of cartilage and skin.
Keratin sulfate. Where is it found? Function?
- Cartilage and bone. Cornea.
- Functions in corneal transparency.
Dermatin sulfate. Where is it found? Function?
- Skin, blood vessels, heart valves.
- Cofactor in a variety of cell behaviors.
Heparin sulfate. Where is it found? Function?
- Basement membranes.
- Facilitates interactions with fibroblast growth factor (FGF).
Heparin. Where is it found? Function?
- Mast cell and basophil granules.
Which GAG is found in skin, blood vessels, and heart valves?
What GAG functions as a lubricant and shock absorber?
Which GAG is a major component of cartilage and skin?
What is the basement membrane made up of?
Collagen (mainly type IV), proteoglycans, and multiadhesive glycoproteins (laminin, fibronectin).
Laminin polymerization and formation of type IV collagen network.
Dense connective tissue primary collagen type?
Type I collagen
Reticular connective tissue primary collagen type?
Collagen type III.
- Light colored chromatin.
- Gene rich, often being actively transcribed.
- "Beads on a string" structure, 8 histones with DNA wound around them.
- Amount of euchromatin corresponds with cell productivity.
- Highly condensed, dark colored, INACTIVE chromatin.
- Few genes.
- 3 locations: marginal chromatin, nucleolar-associated, karyosome.
- X chromosome in females that exists only as tightly packed, inactive heterochromatin.
- Easier to see in smears of cells.
Nucleolus: primary job?
Synthesis of components of ribosomes (rRNA)
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum involved in?
- Synthesis of FAs and phospholipids.
- Detoxification of some drugs.
- Steroid synthesis.
- Membrane formation and recycling.
- Calcium sequestration for muscle contraction.
Golgi apparatus: functions
- post-translational protein sorting and packaging.
- Prominant in secretory cells: plasma cells, osteoblasts, epididymal cells.
- Does not stain with H&E or Wright's (pale, usually perinuclear clearing, like in plasma cells)
- Golgi vesicle secretion.
- Proteins are secreted as soon as they are produced, regardless of environmental factors. Continuously secreted.
- Fusion of vesicle's membrane with cell's membrane.
- Delivery of integral membrane proteins to cell surface.
- Secretion of proteins.
ingestion of large particles (phagosome)
Nonspecific ingestion of fluids and small proteins (endosome).
entry of specific molecules (endosome)
Lysosomes: how are they formed?
- They are formed as vesicles originating from the golgi or rER. Proton (H+) pumps maintain a low lumen pH in them.
- They are membrane bound vesicles that hold hydrolytic enzymes.
Peroxisome: what is it? Prominent where?
- Membrane bound organelle formed directly from ER.
- Contain oxidizing enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, etc) important for protecting cell from H2O2.
- Prominent in hepatocytes and renal tubular cells.
How can intermediate filament be used as a diagnostic tool in tumors?
For identification of undifferentiated malignant tumors.
What are the intracellular inclusions?
Melanin and lipofuscin.
- Intracellular inclusion.
- Brown pigment.
- Protects skin from solar damage.
- Provides color to hair and iris.
- Intracellular inclusion.
- "wear and tear" pigment.
- From oxidative breakdown of mitochondria.
What is shown here? (brown)
- Hemosiderin. Yellow-brown chunky pigment.
- Usually found in macrophages, breakdown of hemoglobin after phagocytosis of RBC.
- Commonly found in spleen and bone marrow.
- Seen in tissues following hemorrhage.
- Prussian blue stain can be used to stain the iron.
What stain should you use to see glycogen?
PAS and Carmin stains. Not stained by H&E.
What process is shown here?
Necrosis. This is a sign of severe inflammation.