pharm exam 2

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pharm exam 2
2011-10-16 19:28:25

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  1. Antitussives
    • -suppress cough
    • -some act within CNS
    • -some act peripherally (dexitromethorphan)
  2. Expectorants
    -renders cough more productive by stimulating the flow of respiratory tract secretions (gulafinesin)
  3. Mucolytics
    -reacts directly with mucous to make it more watery (mucomyst)
  4. Neubulizers
    small machines used to convert a drug solution into a mist for inhalation
  5. DPI
    • (dry-powder inhalers)
    • -used to deliver drugs in the form of a dry, micromized powder directly to the lungs
    • -no propellant is employed
  6. MDI
    • (metored dose inhalers)
    • -small, hand-held, pressurized devices that deliver a measured dose of drug with each actuation
    • -usually 1-2 puffs
    • -make sure to each not to put lips on device but rather a distance of 1-2 inches from mouth
  7. spacers
    • -available to use with MDI devices
    • -attach directly to the device
    • -serve to increase delivery of drug to the lungs and decrease deposition of drug on the orophrayngeal mucosa
  8. two types of antihistamines
    H1 antagonists and H2 antagonists
  9. H1 antagonist
    • -bind selectively to H1-histaminic receptors thereby blocking actinos of histamine at these sites
    • -do not block H2 receptors
    • -do not block release of histamine from mast cells or basophils
    • -side effects: sedation, anticholinergic effects, nonsedative CNS effects, GI effects
  10. H2 antagonists
    • -produce selective blockade of H2 receptors
    • -do not block H1 receptors (no use in treating allergies)
    • -widely used for Peptic Ulcer Disease
  11. 1st generation (highly sedating)
    • -alkylamines
    • -ethanolamines
    • -phenothiazines
    • -piperazines
    • -piperidines
  12. 2nd generation (not highly sedating)
    • -cross blood-brain barrier poorly (much less sedative effect)
    • -azelastine (Astelin)
    • -cetirizine (Zyrtec)
    • -levocetirizine (Xyzal)
    • -fexofenadine (Allegra, Allegra ODT)
    • -lordatadine (Alavert, Claritin, Tavist ND)
    • -desloratadine (Clarinex, Clarinex RediTabs
  13. asthma
    • -common, chronic disorder that occus in children and adults
    • -chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways
  14. two main treatments for asthma
    • -these drugs help relieve the symptoms of asthma by opening up the airway
    • -anti-inflammatory drugs and bronchodilators
  15. anti-inflammatory drugs include:
    glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, cromolyn and nedocromil, omalizumab
  16. glucocorticoids
    • -budesonide and fluticasone
    • -most effective antiasthma drugs available
  17. inhalation use of glucocorticoids
    • -first line therapy for asthma
    • -patients with moderate to severe asthma should use drug daily
  18. oral use of glucocorticoids
    • -reserved for patients with severe asthma
    • -only prescribed when symptoms cannot be controlled with safer medications (inhaled glucocorticoids, inhaled beta2-agonists)
    • -duration of use should be as brief as possible because of risk of toxicity is increased with prolonged use
  19. adverse effects of inhaled glucocorticoids
    • -largely devoid of serious toxicity, even when used in high doses
    • -most serious concerns are adrenal suppression and bone loss