two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to broca's area (impairing to speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing to understanding).
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary or sennsory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.
controls language expression-an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordination movement output and balance.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angels and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
a technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans, these scans show brain functions.
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
doughnut-shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
the base of the brainstem; controls the heart-beat and breathing.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show the brain anatomy.
the formation of new neurons.
portion of the central cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that recieve information from the visual fields.
portion of the central cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; recieves sensory input for touch and body position.
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays and important role in controlling arousal.
area at the front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each recieving information primarily from the opposite ear.
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.