Geo Test #2

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  1. Longest river in the world
  2. Direct change of ice to water vapor w/o going through the liquid phase is called:
  3. Rate of condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere (forming cloud droplets) is determined mainly by:
    the density of condensation nuclei
  4. "Saturated" means:
    • 1. The rates of evaporation & condensation are in equilibrium @ the current temperature
    • 2. Any lowering of the current temp will result in active condensation
  5. Most of the movement of water in the hydrologc cycle is between:
    the ocean & the atmosphere
  6. A relative humidity of 100% means:
    • 1. the rate of evaporation & condensation are in equilibrium at the current temp
    • 2. any lowering of the current temp will result in active condensation
  7. The type of cloud w/ the greatest vertical extent
  8. Latent heat energy is released by water molecules during:
  9. The most adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) because:
    the latent heat of condensation is released intothe rising parcel
  10. Rising air, warmed by the release of latent heat of condensation cools @ the rate called the:
    moist adiabatic rate
  11. A sling psychrometer is used to determine:
    absolute humidity
  12. Latent heat energy is absorbed by water molecules during:
  13. If vapor pressure remains constant, the highest relative humidity normally occurs:
    just before sunrise
  14. The rate of evaporation of water in the atmosphere (cloud droplets) is determined by:
    the temp of the water
  15. The atmospheric gas with the greatest proportion:
  16. Precipitation in measured with:
    a rain guage
  17. Low annual precipitation rates are normally found in regions associated with:
    subtropical high pressure zones
  18. The altitude @ which rising air reaches its dew point temperature is called:
    the lifting condensation level
  19. The environmental lapse rate
    is variable by time & region
  20. Stability in an air parcel refers to:
    the tendancy of the parcel to remain @ a certain altitude, or to move vertically
  21. The direct change of water vapor to ice w/o going through the liquid phase is called:
  22. More than half of the atmospheric methane is generated:
    in rice paddies & flatulent cows
  23. Active condensastion in the air requires adequate vapor pressure, another important component is:
    condensation nuclei
  24. The sky is blue because:
    the air molecules scatter blue wavelength light most efficiently
  25. Warming a parcel of air:
    • 1. increases the rate of evaporation inside the parcel
    • 2. decreases the density of the air parcel
    • 3. may cause the parcel to move higher in the atmosphere
  26. Water is not a renewable resource:
  27. Image Upload
    • Side A:
    • -More likely to have precipitation
    • - Side to have advection fog

    • Side B
    • - Most likey to be Desert
    • - Side to have rain shadow
  28. A cold air mass moves south over southen Alabama in October. The next day is clear but fog has formed over many ponds and lakes. What kind of fog is it?
  29. When a parcel of air rises through the troposphere:
    it expands and its temp decreases as the surrounding atmospheric pressure decreases
  30. The most effective atmospheric gas in producting the "greenhouse effect" is:
    water vapor
  31. Cloud formation is very likey if:
    the ELR is less than both the DAR & the MAR
  32. The source of all groundwater is:
    recharge wells
  33. An exotic river:
    • Nile
    • Colorado
  34. The river w/ the largest drainage area ( watershed) in N.A is:
  35. Drip irrigation is technically more elaborate and much more expensive to instal than conventinal irrigation methods, but it can be approriate & useful for certian crops because:
    much more produce can be harvested per unit area
  36. A stream that flows in equilibrium between its flow rate, suspended load, and the topgraphy of its floorplain is called:
    a graded stream
  37. Watersheds are defined by:
    drainage divides
  38. A central peak, or a dome or a volcanic mountian, generally produces what kind of drainage patterns:
  39. The maximum velocity line in a stream is:
    @ the center and near the surface, corresponding with the deepest parts of the stream channel
  40. A river is 100 meters wide, 5 meters deep, and flows @ the rate of 2.3 mph. What is the total discharge
  41. the area where the fresh water in a river meets the salt water of the ocean
  42. a water-bearing rock layer is called:
    an aquifer
  43. Image Upload
    Which has the greatest deficient?
  44. Earths total water
    326 million
  45. Ocean total water
  46. Fresh water
  47. Ground water
  48. Surface water
  49. Latent Heat
    heat being addes that cannot be measured or identified
  50. Dew point
    • condensation takes over for evaporation
    • when evap rate & condensation rate are equal
  51. Equlibrium vapor pressure
    equal evaporation & condensation
  52. The equilibrim (saturation) vapor pressure
    the vapor pressure @ which the rates of evaporation & condensation are equal @ a partiular temp
  53. Environmental Lapse Rate
    measured on daily bases
  54. Inversion
    cool air turns warm & cools again
  55. Dry adiabatic rate (DAR)
    • rising parcel of dry air expands
    • temp decreases
    • 10oc per 1000 meters
  56. Moist adiabatic rate (MAR)
    • rising parcel of moist air expands
    • temp decreases
    • temp reaches dew point/ makes cloud
    • 5oc per 1000
  57. Lifting condensation level
    level that clouds base forms
  58. Parcel lifting mechanisms
    • convection
    • orographic
    • convergence
  59. Convection
    caused by uneven heating of ground
  60. Orographic
    Image Upload
    • ascending air cools adiabatically to dew point, water vapor condenses (DAR)
    • decending air warms adiabatically
    • windward side = wind
    • leeward side = desert
  61. Image Upload
    • high percepitation
    • equatorial region / trade winds
  62. Image Upload
    when an air mass passes from a maritime source region to a warmer continental region, heating from the warmer land causes lifting in the air mass
  63. What makes clouds
  64. Fog =
    when dew-point temp @ ground level are nearly identical
  65. Advection fog
    • when air migrates from one place to another where saturated conditions exist
    • when warm air comes over cooler bodies of water
  66. Evaporation fog
    when water molecules evaporate from the water surface in to the cold overlying air, humidifying the air
  67. Upslope fog
    forms stratus clouds @ the level of saturation
  68. Valley fog/ Tule fog
    • radiation fog
    • warm air over cool ground by radiation
  69. Radiation fog
    when radiative cooling of a surface chills the air layer directly above the surface to te dew-point temp
  70. ELR > DAR & MAR
    No clouds
  71. ELR < DAR & MAR
  72. Cumulus
    fair weather
  73. Cumulonimbus
    rain cloud/ thunderstorms
  74. Clouds by ground are made of:
  75. Higher clouds are made of:
  76. Stratus
    layer clouds
  77. Condensation nucleus
    dust, particles, smoke, salt, crystals, aerosols
  78. Fronts
    meeting of air masses
  79. Tropical Cyclones
    hurricanes & typhoons
  80. Marine layer
    low laying air close to waters surface
  81. Image Upload
  82. Image Upload
  83. Air Masses
    form over land & take on the lands characteristics
  84. Mp
    Maritime polar
  85. Mt
    Maritime Tropical
  86. Cp
    Contiential Polar
  87. cA
    Continential Artic
  88. Why does cold air move faster than warm air
    more dense
  89. acculded front
    where air masses meet
  90. Midlatitude Cyclone
    large circulating wind systems centered on a low pressure region where winds are converging and rising
  91. Elements of Hydrologic Cycle
    • water
    • evaportation & transpiration
    • precipitation
    • movement
  92. Precipitation
    reaches earths surface, evaporates, flows overland or soaks into ground
  93. Inflitration
    soaking into ground
  94. Percolation
    move vertically though soil & rock
  95. Permability
    water can be soaked up or passes though
  96. Surface aquifer
    water from above
  97. Aquifer
    rock layer permeable to groundwater
  98. Potential evapotranspiration
    • POTET
    • amount of water the would evaporate and transpire under optimum moisture conditions
  99. Deficit
  100. Actual evapotranspiration
  101. Surplus
    • SURPL
    • overflow
  102. Moisture Storage
  103. Water balance equation
    Precip = Actet + Surplus + Storge
  104. Water table
    upper limit of the water that collects in the zone of saturation
  105. Most water use
  106. Comsumptive use of water
    water lost in evaporation
  107. Drip irrigaton
    • for produce
    • greater crop yeild
  108. Aquifer recharge area
    surface area where water enters an aquifer to recharge it
  109. Erosion
    wind, water & ice dissolve or remove surface materical
  110. Hydrology
    science of water
  111. Rivers
    • only flow downstream
    • provide water supplies
    • provides drainage
    • provides sink
    • creates landscapes
    • exotic
  112. Nile
    • longest river in the world
    • comes from lake victoria
    • flows to mediterrian
  113. Mississippi
    longest river in the US
  114. Interfluves
    space between rivers
  115. Drainage divide
    • upland area
    • drainage basin
  116. Watershed
    • valley where rivers are
    • natl forests
  117. Contiential divide
    raised area where water is directed
  118. Mississippi basin
    42% of total area of US
  119. Flow rate
    where the river is flowing
  120. Graded stream
    @ equilbrium, sloped
  121. Colorado & Nile rivers
  122. Exotic River
    from forgein area
  123. Movement of material by running water
    • dissolved & suspended load
    • bedload ( bottom)
    • Saturation( light stuff)
    • traction (light stuff)
  124. Stream patterns
    • Dendritic
    • Trellis
  125. River patternsImage Upload
    • dendritic - tree like
    • trellis- dipping & folding topograpgy/ parallel mountain ranges
    • radial - streams off central peak/dome
    • rectangular - formed by fault & jointed landscpape
  126. Tributaries
    small streams attached to main river
  127. Delta
    distributes mineals & mud
Card Set:
Geo Test #2
2011-10-17 00:53:15

Geography Test #2 ( Chaps 5,6,11)
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