Geo Test #2

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Author:
regishouse
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109443
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Geo Test #2
Updated:
2011-10-16 20:53:15
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geo
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Description:
Geography Test #2 ( Chaps 5,6,11)
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  1. Longest river in the world
    Nile
  2. Direct change of ice to water vapor w/o going through the liquid phase is called:
    sublimation
  3. Rate of condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere (forming cloud droplets) is determined mainly by:
    the density of condensation nuclei
  4. "Saturated" means:
    • 1. The rates of evaporation & condensation are in equilibrium @ the current temperature
    • 2. Any lowering of the current temp will result in active condensation
  5. Most of the movement of water in the hydrologc cycle is between:
    the ocean & the atmosphere
  6. A relative humidity of 100% means:
    • 1. the rate of evaporation & condensation are in equilibrium at the current temp
    • 2. any lowering of the current temp will result in active condensation
  7. The type of cloud w/ the greatest vertical extent
    cumulonimbus
  8. Latent heat energy is released by water molecules during:
    condensation
  9. The most adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) because:
    the latent heat of condensation is released intothe rising parcel
  10. Rising air, warmed by the release of latent heat of condensation cools @ the rate called the:
    moist adiabatic rate
  11. A sling psychrometer is used to determine:
    absolute humidity
  12. Latent heat energy is absorbed by water molecules during:
    evaporation
  13. If vapor pressure remains constant, the highest relative humidity normally occurs:
    just before sunrise
  14. The rate of evaporation of water in the atmosphere (cloud droplets) is determined by:
    the temp of the water
  15. The atmospheric gas with the greatest proportion:
    Nitrogen
  16. Precipitation in measured with:
    a rain guage
  17. Low annual precipitation rates are normally found in regions associated with:
    subtropical high pressure zones
  18. The altitude @ which rising air reaches its dew point temperature is called:
    the lifting condensation level
  19. The environmental lapse rate
    is variable by time & region
  20. Stability in an air parcel refers to:
    the tendancy of the parcel to remain @ a certain altitude, or to move vertically
  21. The direct change of water vapor to ice w/o going through the liquid phase is called:
    sublimation
  22. More than half of the atmospheric methane is generated:
    in rice paddies & flatulent cows
  23. Active condensastion in the air requires adequate vapor pressure, another important component is:
    condensation nuclei
  24. The sky is blue because:
    the air molecules scatter blue wavelength light most efficiently
  25. Warming a parcel of air:
    • 1. increases the rate of evaporation inside the parcel
    • 2. decreases the density of the air parcel
    • 3. may cause the parcel to move higher in the atmosphere
  26. Water is not a renewable resource:
    false
    • Side A:
    • -More likely to have precipitation
    • - Side to have advection fog

    • Side B
    • - Most likey to be Desert
    • - Side to have rain shadow
  27. A cold air mass moves south over southen Alabama in October. The next day is clear but fog has formed over many ponds and lakes. What kind of fog is it?
    evaporation
  28. When a parcel of air rises through the troposphere:
    it expands and its temp decreases as the surrounding atmospheric pressure decreases
  29. The most effective atmospheric gas in producting the "greenhouse effect" is:
    water vapor
  30. Cloud formation is very likey if:
    the ELR is less than both the DAR & the MAR
  31. The source of all groundwater is:
    recharge wells
  32. An exotic river:
    • Nile
    • Colorado
  33. The river w/ the largest drainage area ( watershed) in N.A is:
    Mississippi
  34. Drip irrigation is technically more elaborate and much more expensive to instal than conventinal irrigation methods, but it can be approriate & useful for certian crops because:
    much more produce can be harvested per unit area
  35. A stream that flows in equilibrium between its flow rate, suspended load, and the topgraphy of its floorplain is called:
    a graded stream
  36. Watersheds are defined by:
    drainage divides
  37. A central peak, or a dome or a volcanic mountian, generally produces what kind of drainage patterns:
    radial
  38. The maximum velocity line in a stream is:
    @ the center and near the surface, corresponding with the deepest parts of the stream channel
  39. A river is 100 meters wide, 5 meters deep, and flows @ the rate of 2.3 mph. What is the total discharge
    1,150m3/hr
  40. the area where the fresh water in a river meets the salt water of the ocean
    estuary
  41. a water-bearing rock layer is called:
    an aquifer

  42. Which has the greatest deficient?
    B
  43. Earths total water
    326 million
  44. Ocean total water
    97%
  45. Fresh water
    2%
  46. Ground water
    22.2%
  47. Surface water
    77.8%
  48. Latent Heat
    heat being addes that cannot be measured or identified
  49. Dew point
    • condensation takes over for evaporation
    • when evap rate & condensation rate are equal
  50. Equlibrium vapor pressure
    equal evaporation & condensation
  51. The equilibrim (saturation) vapor pressure
    the vapor pressure @ which the rates of evaporation & condensation are equal @ a partiular temp
  52. Environmental Lapse Rate
    measured on daily bases
  53. Inversion
    cool air turns warm & cools again
  54. Dry adiabatic rate (DAR)
    • rising parcel of dry air expands
    • temp decreases
    • 10oc per 1000 meters
  55. Moist adiabatic rate (MAR)
    • rising parcel of moist air expands
    • temp decreases
    • temp reaches dew point/ makes cloud
    • 5oc per 1000
  56. Lifting condensation level
    level that clouds base forms
  57. Parcel lifting mechanisms
    • convection
    • orographic
    • convergence
  58. Convection
    caused by uneven heating of ground
  59. Orographic
    • ascending air cools adiabatically to dew point, water vapor condenses (DAR)
    • decending air warms adiabatically
    • windward side = wind
    • leeward side = desert
    • high percepitation
    • equatorial region / trade winds
  60. when an air mass passes from a maritime source region to a warmer continental region, heating from the warmer land causes lifting in the air mass
  61. What makes clouds
    MAR
  62. Fog =
    when dew-point temp @ ground level are nearly identical
  63. Advection fog
    • when air migrates from one place to another where saturated conditions exist
    • when warm air comes over cooler bodies of water
  64. Evaporation fog
    when water molecules evaporate from the water surface in to the cold overlying air, humidifying the air
  65. Upslope fog
    forms stratus clouds @ the level of saturation
  66. Valley fog/ Tule fog
    • radiation fog
    • warm air over cool ground by radiation
  67. Radiation fog
    when radiative cooling of a surface chills the air layer directly above the surface to te dew-point temp
  68. ELR > DAR & MAR
    No clouds
  69. ELR < DAR & MAR
    Storm
  70. Cumulus
    fair weather
  71. Cumulonimbus
    rain cloud/ thunderstorms
  72. Clouds by ground are made of:
    water
  73. Higher clouds are made of:
    ice
  74. Stratus
    layer clouds
  75. Condensation nucleus
    dust, particles, smoke, salt, crystals, aerosols
  76. Fronts
    meeting of air masses
  77. Tropical Cyclones
    hurricanes & typhoons
  78. Marine layer
    low laying air close to waters surface
  79. Air Masses
    form over land & take on the lands characteristics
  80. Mp
    Maritime polar
  81. Mt
    Maritime Tropical
  82. Cp
    Contiential Polar
  83. cA
    Continential Artic
  84. Why does cold air move faster than warm air
    more dense
  85. acculded front
    where air masses meet
  86. Midlatitude Cyclone
    large circulating wind systems centered on a low pressure region where winds are converging and rising
  87. Elements of Hydrologic Cycle
    • water
    • evaportation & transpiration
    • precipitation
    • movement
  88. Precipitation
    reaches earths surface, evaporates, flows overland or soaks into ground
  89. Inflitration
    soaking into ground
  90. Percolation
    move vertically though soil & rock
  91. Permability
    water can be soaked up or passes though
  92. Surface aquifer
    water from above
  93. Aquifer
    rock layer permeable to groundwater
  94. Potential evapotranspiration
    • POTET
    • amount of water the would evaporate and transpire under optimum moisture conditions
  95. Deficit
    DEFIC
  96. Actual evapotranspiration
    DEFIC-POTET= ACTET
  97. Surplus
    • SURPL
    • overflow
  98. Moisture Storage
    STRGE
  99. Water balance equation
    Precip = Actet + Surplus + Storge
  100. Water table
    upper limit of the water that collects in the zone of saturation
  101. Most water use
    Theroelectric
  102. Comsumptive use of water
    water lost in evaporation
  103. Drip irrigaton
    • for produce
    • greater crop yeild
  104. Aquifer recharge area
    surface area where water enters an aquifer to recharge it
  105. Erosion
    wind, water & ice dissolve or remove surface materical
  106. Hydrology
    science of water
  107. Rivers
    • only flow downstream
    • provide water supplies
    • provides drainage
    • provides sink
    • creates landscapes
    • exotic
  108. Nile
    • longest river in the world
    • comes from lake victoria
    • flows to mediterrian
  109. Mississippi
    longest river in the US
  110. Interfluves
    space between rivers
  111. Drainage divide
    • upland area
    • drainage basin
  112. Watershed
    • valley where rivers are
    • natl forests
  113. Contiential divide
    raised area where water is directed
  114. Mississippi basin
    42% of total area of US
  115. Flow rate
    where the river is flowing
  116. Graded stream
    @ equilbrium, sloped
  117. Colorado & Nile rivers
    exotic
  118. Exotic River
    from forgein area
  119. Movement of material by running water
    • dissolved & suspended load
    • bedload ( bottom)
    • Saturation( light stuff)
    • traction (light stuff)
  120. Stream patterns
    • Dendritic
    • Trellis
  121. River patterns
    • dendritic - tree like
    • trellis- dipping & folding topograpgy/ parallel mountain ranges
    • radial - streams off central peak/dome
    • rectangular - formed by fault & jointed landscpape
  122. Tributaries
    small streams attached to main river
  123. Delta
    distributes mineals & mud

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