FINAL TEST INFO.txt

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FINAL TEST INFO.txt
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FINAL EXAM FLASHCARDS
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FINAL EXAM FLASHCARDS
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  1. Describe BVM, NRB and NC
    • - BVM 90-100% at 10-15LPM
    • - NRB 60-90% at 10-15LPM
    • - NC 25-30% at 2-6LPM
  2. Thoracic Trauma
    • - tracheal deviation
    • - Asymmetrical movement
    • - Neck veins distended
    • - Abnormal breath sounds
    • - Shock
    • - Subcutaneous emphysema
    • - chest wall contusion / open wounds
    • - Cyanosis, chest pain, SOB
  3. Open pheumothorax
    • - open chest wound, air enteres into plural space, squishes lung to collapse, then possible tension pneumothorax
    • - Hypoxia
    • - shallow breathing
    • - guarging wound
    • initial=hand on wound
    • secondary=3 sided occlusive dressing
  4. Flail Chest
    • - 3+ ribs broken in 2+ places in succession
    • - paridoxical motion
    • - SOB
    • - guarding
    • - pulse up
    • - BP up
    • Watch out for pulinary contusion / Hemothorax / pneumothorax
  5. Tension Pneumothorax
    • - Lungs popped, air fills plural space and begins to push on other chest cavity organs
    • - SOB, fast and shallow
    • - Breath sounds diminished
    • - JVD
    • - tracheal deviation
    • - Tacypnea
    • - Anxiety
    • - Dyspnea
  6. Massive Hemothorax
    • - Blood fills the plural space
    • - anxiety and confusion
    • - neck veins flat = hypovolemia
    • - breath sounds decreased
    • - Shock
  7. Cardiac Tamponalde
    • - blood fills the sac around the heart
    • -Becks Triad (hypotension, neck veins distended, heart sounds muffled)
    • - peridoxical pulse
    • - breath sounds equal
    • Watch out for hemothorax and pneumothorax
  8. Myocardial Contusion
    • - blunt chest injury
    • - similar to MI and Angina
    • Watch for cardiac tamponalde, hemothorax and pneumothorax
  9. AAA and Tramatic Aortic Rupture
    • - MVC's and falls from height (90% immidiate death)
    • - scene size up and history is extremely important
    • (no obvious sign of chest trauma, hypertension in upper extremities
  10. What is shock?
    - Inadequate perfusion of tissues
  11. What are the 4 causes of shock?
    • - pump problem (heart)
    • - fluid volume issue
    • - air exchange issue
    • - Vascular system issue
  12. What are the 2 types of shock?
    • Compinsated - Body is trying to fix itself
    • Decompinsated - Body gives up
  13. Signs and symptoms of Compinsated shock?
    • - thirst
    • - diaphoresis (sweaty)
    • - Breathing fast
    • - fast pulse
    • - periferal pulses weakened
  14. Signs and symptoms of decompinsated shock?
    • - Altered mental status
    • - Acidosis (less O2in body makes it acidic)
    • - Leads to cardiac arrest
  15. What Are the Vital signs all FF's must know?
    • - Pulse
    • - BP
    • - Respirations
    • - Pupils
    • - LOC
    • - SPO2
    • - Skin
    • we dont check but we should know:
    • - BGL
    • - EtCO2
  16. What 7 places can we check the patients pulse?
    corodid (neck), breakeal (bicep), radial (wrist), femorial, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibialis
  17. What is the normal pulse range for an adult, child and infant?
    • Adult - 60-100
    • Child - 80-120
    • Infant - 120-140
  18. What is EtCO2?
    - the amount of Co2 being exhaled
  19. What is the normal range of EtCO2?
    35-40mmHg
  20. How does EtCO2 help you?
    • It tell you during CPR if you are:
    • - If the EtCO2 reads high, speed up ventilations (hyperventilation)
    • - If the EtCO2 reads low, slow down ventilations (hypoventilation)
  21. SpO2 is...
    How many O2 is sticking to the hempglobin in the blood.
  22. What is the range of SPo2 readings?
    90-100%
  23. What are the two substances that will give your SPO2 a false reading?
    - carbon monoxide and cyonide
  24. How do you check LOC?
    • AVPU - Alert, verbal, pain, unresponsive
    • Orientation - Name, time, place, event
    • A + O X 3
  25. What is the BP normal range?
    100/76 - 140/90
  26. What are you checking on the skin?
    Temperature, condition, colour
  27. What does it mean if the pupils are not even or reactive?
    - swelling in your head. Possible head trauma.
  28. What is the normal temperature of a human?
    - 36.9 or 98.6 degrees
  29. What is a normal BGL?
    - 4-8
  30. Medical
    • - Miocardial Infarction, AAA Abdominal Aortic anuerizm, Angina, Ateriosclerosis,
    • Congestive Heart Failure, Stroke, Trans ischemic attack, Sepsis, Pericarditis.
  31. What is an MI?
    • - Miocardial Infarction
    • - death of tissue surrounding the heart
  32. What are some signs and symptoms of an MI?
    • - Pain (clutching of the chest)
    • - Reffered Pain (radiating) to the left arm, shoulder jaw.
    • - Rapid Breathing, and increased heart rate.
    • - irregular Pulse
    • - Described like bad indigestion
    • - BECKS TRIAD muffeled heart sounds, increased
  33. What two things make you think MI?
    • 1. pain or discomfort in the chest/left arm/neck
    • 2. SOB
  34. Angina?
    • A temporary blockage around the heart, (fake MI)
    • MI is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
  35. Stroke?
    Blockage around the brain (MI of the brain)
  36. TIA?
    • Temporary blockage around the brain.
    • Stroke is imminant (sooner or later), take to hospital
  37. CHF?
    • Conjestive heart failure (Fluid in Lungs)
    • - usually smokers with COPD
    • - do not lay them down
  38. Sepsis?
    • - blood infection throughout body
    • - look like shit and stink
  39. Aortic Dissection?
    • Tearing of Aorta due to trauma
    • trauma version of Abdominal Aortic anurism
    • - good pulse above heart, poor pulse below heart
  40. Cardiac Tamponade
    • - sqeezing of heart due to swelling
    • - JVD is apparent
  41. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Adult CPR.
    - 30:2
  42. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Adult CPR.
    - 30:2
  43. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Child CPR.
    - 30:2
  44. How many compressions:breaths for 1 Rescuer Infant CPR.
    - 30:2
  45. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Child CPR.
    - 15:2
  46. How many compressions:breaths for 2 Rescuer Infant CPR.
    - 15:2
  47. What are battle signs?
    Brusing behind the ears. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  48. What are raccoon eyes?
    Immidiate Black eyes. Sign of head trauma and bleeding.
  49. What is the secondary injury when you have a brain injury?
    Hypoxia and decreased perfusion.
  50. What are some signs and symptoms of a concussion?
    • - sometimes no visible trauma
    • - retrograde short term amnesia
    • - dizziness, headache, ringing in ears, nausea
  51. What are some signs and symptoms of a cerebral contusion?
    • - Altered LOC
    • - confusion
    • - personality changes
    • - focal neurological signs
  52. Acute Epidural Hematoma
    • - Arterial bleed
    • - initial LOC
    • symptoms - one dialated fixed pupil, increased ICP, uncoscious, paralysis, death
  53. Acute Subdural Hematoma
    • - venous bleed
    • - Altered LOC
    • - Headache
    • - Focal neurologic signs
    • HIGH RISK: Alcoholics, elderly, ppl on blood thinners
  54. Cerebral Hemorrage
    • - Arterial or venus
    • - Altered LOC
    • Symptoms - Headache, vomiting, pattern similar to stroke
  55. Increasing pulse, ~ resps and decreasing pulse means?
    • - Cerebral Herniation Syndrome
    • - herniation outweighs hypoxia
    • - must hyperventilate to restrict vessels in brain and give space to swell
    • - (AND GET TO HOSPITAL QUICK)
  56. You must hyperventilate in what circumstances?
    • - TBI, GCS<9, decerebrate posture
    • - TBI, GCS<9, dialated or non reactive pupils
    • - TBI, GCS<9, then drops another 2 points
    • **If these symptoms resolve themselves, stop hyperventilating**
  57. What are a few signs and symptoms of a spinal injury?
    • - neck and pack pain
    • - guarding (not moving)
    • - numbness and tingleing
    • - PMS check
    • - Priaprism
    • - neurogenic shock
    • - loss of bowels and bladder control
    • - deformity
  58. Emergency rescue
    • - Pull the patient to safety by any means possible to safe their life
    • - seconds to get oout
    • - c spine is not a factor
  59. Rapid extraction
    • - you have a little longer time to place c-collar and put on backboard quickly then move to safety.
    • - 1-2 mins
  60. Ligament
    - bone to bone attachment
  61. Tendon
    - muscle to bone
  62. Sprain
    - ligaments
  63. Strain
    - tendons
  64. Neurogenic Shock
    • - hypotension
    • - normal skin temp and colour
    • - inappropriately slow heart rate
  65. Ked strap procedure saying...
    - My baby likes to party hard
  66. Decorticate posture
    • - arms flexed posture
    • - GCS of 3
  67. Decrebrate posture
    • - arms extended posture
    • - GCS of 2
  68. Prone position
    - on stomache
  69. Supine
    - on back
  70. Helmet removal procedure
    • 1.Manual C spine
    • 2. Cut strap
    • 3 change c spine control
    • 4. pull helmet
    • 5. remove by rocking (avoid noise)
    • 6. Pause prior to removal / taking weight off head
    • 7. check helmet for damage
  71. Types of Open fracture (compound)
    • - simple
    • - compound
  72. Types of closed fracture
    • - greenstick
    • - spiral
    • - simple
    • - transverse
  73. How much blood is lost when you fracture 1 femur?
    - 1 liter
  74. How much blood is lost when you have a pelvic fracture
    - 500cc for each fracture
  75. What do you check on a patient if you find a dislocation or fracture?
    - check distal pulse
  76. Do you try to reset a dislocation if you dont find a distal pulse?
    NO!
  77. Do you try to reset a fracture if you dont find a distal pulse?
    Yes!
  78. What do you do if you find a fracture that has a distal pulse?
    - splint it
  79. What do you check after splinting?
    - Distal PMS
  80. What do you do with an amputation?
    • - Deal with the patient first.
    • - Put amputated parts in bag, then that bag into bag#2 full of ice.
  81. What should the splint secure?
    - the joint above and below the fracture
  82. With extreme non stop bleeding what is the process you follow?
    gauze,wipe for 1 look, gauze, more gauze, more gauze, try to put pressure above the wound, LAST RESORT tournaque
  83. If extenuating blood loss is prevelent, what must you remember?
    - CAB
  84. What is compartment syndrome?
    • - pain + paresthesia (numbnesss)
    • - pain, pallor, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis
  85. What splint do you use with an open fracture?
    - rigid splint
  86. What types of splints are there?
    • - Rigid
    • - Pneumatic "air"
    • - Vaccum
    • - Pillow
  87. What is wrong if there is external rotation of the leg and that leg is shorter than the other?
    • - granny broken hip
    • - also known as broken femoral neck and broken hip
  88. What makes a "load and go"?
    • - LOC
    • - Airway compermise
    • - Breathing
    • - irculation
    • - Unstable pelvis
    • - 2 femur brakes
    • - Tender / Distended abdomen
    • - 3m+ fall
  89. When checking breath sounds what does it mean if you find or ?
    • - Hypo_tympany is for hemo (blood)
    • - Hyper_tympany is for air
  90. AVPU orientation questions, What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - testing LOC
    • - Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive
    • - name, place, time, event
  91. DIRT What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - distention
    • - injection sites
    • - rigidity
    • - tenderness
  92. AEIOU and TIPS What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - Alcohol, epilepsy, insulin, overdose, uremia
    • - Trauma, infection, poisoning, shock
  93. RRQ What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - pulse
    • - rate, rhythm, quality
  94. RRD What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - breathing
    • - rate, rythem, depth
  95. SAMPLE What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - start of secondary survey
    • - signs and symptoms
    • - allergies
    • - medications
    • - past medical history
    • - last oral intake
    • - events prior
  96. OPQRSTU What does it mean and when do you use it?
    • - after sample in secondary survey
    • - onset
    • - provokes (anything make it worse?)
    • - Quality (describe the pain)
    • - Radiates (pain anywhere else?)
    • - Severity (out of 10)
    • - Treatment (has anyone tried to help you?)
    • - What do U think it is?
  97. What locations do you have to know about the brain?
    • Frontal lobe - frontal bone
    • temporal lobe - temporal bone
    • occipital lobe - occipital bone
    • parietal lobe - parietal bone
  98. Acute Epidural Hematoma
    • - Arterial bleed
    • - initial LOC
    • symptoms - one dialated fixed pupil, increased ICP, uncoscious, paralysis, death
  99. Acute Subdural Hematoma
    • - venous bleed
    • - Altered LOC
    • - Headache
    • - Focal neurologic signs
    • HIGH RISK: Alcoholics, elderly, ppl on blood thinners
  100. Cerebral Hemorrage
    • - Arterial or venus
    • - Altered LOC
    • Symptoms - Headache, vomiting, pattern similar to stroke
  101. Bradycardia?
    - Lower HR than normal range
  102. Tachycardia?
    - Higher HR than normal range
  103. Diaphoretic?
    - Sweatty
  104. Hypertensive?
    - Lower BP than normal range
  105. Hypotensive?
    - Higher BP than normal range
  106. DCAPBLS TICS?
  107. Deformaties, contusions, abrasions, penetrations, burns, lacerations, swelling
    Tenferness, intsability, crepitis, subcutaneous emphasema
  108. Systolic?
  109. When the heart contracts
    Top # on a BP reading
  110. Diastolic?
  111. When the heart relaxes
    Bottom # on a BP reading
  112. cyonotic?
    Blueish colour - lack of O2
  113. Jaundice?
    Yellowing of the body
  114. LLL refers to:
    Left Lower lung
  115. RML refers to:
    Right middle lung
  116. RUQ refers to?
    Right upper quadrent
  117. LLQ:
    Left lower quadrent
  118. What is it called when somebody has BGL above 8?
    Hyperglycemia
  119. What is hypoglycemia?
    BGL below the average of 4-8
  120. What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
    • Sign - you can see what is happening
    • Symptom - Is what the patient feels
  121. Angina is to MI as TIA is to...
    • Stroke.
    • TIA and Angina are temporary blockages
  122. JVD is:
    Jugular Vein Distention
  123. Tacypnea
    Rapid breathing, above 20 resps/min
  124. Dyspnea
    Breathlessness
  125. Diaphoresis
    profuse sweating
  126. Airway adjuncts
    • In order to ensure an open airway
    • - oropharyngeal airway
    • - nasopharyngeal airway
  127. What is the difference between oxygenation and ventilation?
    • Oxygenationation = put o2 in blood for body = SpO2 measurement
    • Ventilation = us breathing for someone = EtCO2 measurement
  128. APGAR What does it mean and when do you use it?
    Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration
  129. What is type 1 diabetes
    - insulin dependent
  130. What is type 2 diabete
    - sugar dependent
  131. Irregular Resperations, Increased BP, Decreased pulse
    • - Cushings Response, Cerebral hemorrahage, incresased icp
    • -treated by hyperventilation to contract the cerebral arteries and veins
  132. JVD, Muffled heart sounds, Low Blood Pressure
    • -Becks Triad = Cardiac Tamponade
    • Watch out for: hemothorax / pneumothorax
  133. Shallow breathing, guarding around chest, sucking chest wound
    • - Open pneumothorax
    • initial - hand on hole
    • Secondary - 3 sided occlusive
  134. 3+ ribs broken in 2+ places in succession
    • - Flail chest
    • initial - support with hand
    • secondary - ball of gauze, pushed in slightly to support the flail section
    • Watch for: Pulminary contusion / hemothorax / pneumothorax
  135. Breath sounds decreased (hypertympany when percussed), SOB fast and shallow, dimished breath sounds, JVD, tracheal deviation
    • - Tension pneumothorax
    • - give low flow O2, careful not to make the problem worse
  136. Breath sounds decreased (hypotympany when percussed), shock, confusion
    • - Massive Hemothorax
    • initial - possible o2
    • Secondary - treat for shock
  137. chest pain, dysrythmias, cardiagenic shock
    • - myocardial contusion (very similar to MI)
    • initial - possible O2
  138. MVC's or falls from height, pulsating mass in the abdomen
    • - Traumatic Aortic rupture (or AAA)
    • Nothing you can do!
  139. Altered LOC, confusion, amnesia, personality changes, focal neurological signs
    • - Cerebral contusion
    • - deal with secondary injuries (shock, LOC, CAB)
  140. Increased ICP symptoms are:
    increased BP, decreased pulse and ~ resps
  141. Absolute hypovolemia
    • - fast pulse
    • - flat neck veins
    • - weak radial pulse
    • - pale skin
  142. Relative Hypovolemia (high space) shock
    • Injury - low pulse, pink, Flat neck veins, absent PMS in extremities
    • Poisoned - fast heart, pale, flat neck veins
  143. Mechanical (Obstructive/cardiogenic) shock
    • - caused due to:
    • - Tension pneumothorax
    • - cardiac tamponade
    • - myocardial contusion
    • S/S
    • - quick resps
    • - weak pulse
    • - pale, cool, diaphoretic
  144. Diabetes is:
    • - a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar
    • - the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced
    • - Symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst and increased hunger

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