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2011-10-16 20:23:59

Visual Coding, Neural Basis of Visual Perception, Visual Development
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  1. Law of Specific Nerve Energies
    Statement that each nerve always conveys the same kind of information to the brain
  2. Pupil
    Where light enters the eye
  3. Retina
    Rear surface of the eye which in lined with receptors
  4. Bipolar Cells
    Neuron in the retina that receives input directly from the receptors
  5. Ganglion Cells
    Neuron in the retina that receives input from the bipolar cells
  6. Optic Nerve
    Bundle of axons that travel from the ganglion cells of the retina to the brain
  7. Blind Spot
    Has no receptors, the point where the optic nerve exits the back of the eye
  8. Fovea
    Tiny area in the center of the retina specialized for acute, detailed vision
  9. Rods
    • Respond to faint light
    • Found in periphery of the retina
    • Outnumber cones 20:1
  10. Cones
    • Abundanct in/around fovea
    • Useful in bright light, essential for color vision
    • Provide 90% of brain input
  11. Photo-pigments
    Chemical that releases energy when struck by light
  12. Yem-Helmholtz Theory
    We perceive color through the relative rates of response by 3 kinds of cones each sensitive to different sets of wavelengths
  13. Opponent-Process Theory
    We perceive color in terms of oppsites
  14. Color Constancy
    The ability to recognize colors despite changes in lighting
  15. Retinex Theory
    • Edwin Land
    • Cortext compares info from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color of each area
  16. Horizontal Cell
    Cell that receives input from receptors and delivers inhibitory input to bipolar cells
  17. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  18. Lateral Inhibition
    • Retina's way of sharpening contrasts to emphasize the borders of objects
    • Reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons
    • When light falls on a surface, bipolars inside are more excited than outside
  19. Receptive field
    Part of the visual field to which any one neuron responds
  20. Parvocellular Neurons
    Small-celled neuron of the visual system that is sensitive to color differences and visual detailsin its small visual field
  21. Magnocellular Neurons
    Large-celled neuron of the visual system that is sentivie to changing or moving stimuli in a relatively large visual field
  22. Koniocellular Neurons
    Ganglion cells located throughout the retina
  23. Primary Visual Cortex, V1
    Area of cortex responsible for the first stage of visual processing
  24. Secondary Visual Cortex, V2
    Area of visual cortex responsible for the 2nd stage of visual processing
  25. Ventral stream
    Visual paths in the temporal cortex, sometimes known as the "what" pathway
  26. Simple Cell
    Type of visual cortex cell that has fixed excitatory and inhibitory zones in it's receptive field
  27. Complex Cells
    Cell type of visual cortex that responds best to a light stimuluus of a particular shape antwhere in its recpetive field
  28. End-Stopped, Hypercomplex Cell
    Of visual cortex that responds to stimuli of a precisely limited type, anywhere in a large receptive field with a strong inhibitory field at one end of its field
  29. Feature Detectors
    Neuron whose recpetors indicate the presence of a particular feature
  30. Inferior Temportal Cortex
    Portion of the cortex where neurons are highly senstivie to complex aspects of the shape of visual stimuli within very large receptive fields
  31. Shape Constancy
    Ability to perceive a shape of an object despite the movement or rotation of the object
  32. Visual agnosia
    Impaired ability to identify visual objects despite otherwise satisfactory vision
  33. Prosopagnosia
    Impaired ability to recognize or identify faces
  34. Motion Blindness
    Impaired ability to perceive the direction or speed of movement, despite otherwise good vision
  35. Binocular Input
    Stimulation from both eyes
  36. Sensitive Period
    Time early in development during which some events has a strong lasting effect (presence of a hormone)
  37. Retinal Disparity
    Discrepancy between what the left eye sees and what the right eyye sees
  38. Strabismus
    Condition in which the two eyes point in different directions
  39. Astigmatism
    Blurring vision for lines in one direction ecause of the nonspherical shape of the eye