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- - Pull out method
- - Least effective
- - Last resort contraception
- - Does not protect against STD's or HIV
Fertility Awareness Methods
- - Also called natural family planning
- - FAM's
- - Periodic abstinence
- - Only contraception approved by Catholic faith
- - 3 phases of planning
- - Ovulation can be unpredictable
- - Use of charts, records, calculations, tools, observations and abstinence or barrier methods of birth controlduring fertil periods
The 3 phases of FAM's
- 1. Infertile phase: Before ovulation
- 2. Fertile phase: about 5 to 7 days around the middle of the cycle, including several days before and during ovulation and the day after.
- 3. Infertile phase: after ovulation
Factors affecting method contraceptive effectiveness.
- Frequency of intercourse
- motivation to prevent pregnancy
- Understanding of how to use the method
- Adherence to method
- Provision of short-term or long-term protection
- Likelihood of pregnancy for the individual woman
- Consistent use of method
Potential pitfalls of using fertility awareness methods of contraception.
- Restriction on sexual spontaneity
- Rigorous daily monitoring
- Required training
- Risk of pregnancy during prolonged training period
- Risk of pregnancy high on unsafe days
Calendar Rhythm Method
Fertility period is determined after accurately recording the lengths of menstrual cycles for at least 6 months. Subtract 18 from the shortest cylce and 11 from the longest cycle to figure fertile days.
- Shortest cycle: 24 - 18 = 6th day
- Longest cycle: 30 - 11 = 19th day
Abstinence of sex for day 6 to day 19.
Standard Days Method
- Modified form of the calendar rhythm method that has a fixed number of days of fertility for each cycle (8 to 19 days).
- Cycle beads are used to track fertility.
What are the 2 calendar-based methods?
- Calendar Rhythm Method
- Standard Days Method
- Two Day Method
- Ovulation Method
- Basal Body Temperature Method
- Symptothermal Method
Two Day Method
- Method used tracking cervial secretions
- Asks self 2 questions-
- "Did I note secretions today?"
- "Did I note secretions yesterday?"
- If yes, avoid sex
- If no, safe to have sex
- Easiest method to use
- Billings Method
- Creighton Model Ovulation Method
- Highly accurate if done correctly
- Requires recognizing and interpreting the cyclic changes in the amount and consistency of cervical mucus that characterize her own unique pattern of changes.
- Requires women checking quantity and character of mucus on the vulva or introitus with fingers or tissue paper each day for several months to learn the cycle.
- Intercourse considered safe without restriction beginning the fourth day after the last day of wet, clear, slippery mucus (postovulation).
Why is cervical mucus necessary?
- Viability and motility of sperm
- Alters pH environment
- Neutralizes acidity
- Makes it more compatible for sperm survival
How can you unsure accurate assessment of changes in the ovulation method?
- Make sure mucus is free of semen, contraceptive gels, foams, blood or discharge from vaginal infections for at least one full cycle.
- Also avoid douches, vaginal deodorants and being sexually aroused states because it thins the mucus.
- Medications like antihistamines can dry up mucus.
What other purposes would the ovulation method be helpful with?
- To alert the couple to the reestablishment of ovulation while breastfeeding and after discontinuation of oral contraception.
- To note anovulatory cycles at any time and at the commencement of menopause.
- To assist couples in planning a pregnancy
What is basal body temperature?
The lowest body temperature of a healthy person.
When does the temperature need to be taken for accurate BBT?
Immediately after waking and before getting out of bed.
What is the BBT during menses? How long does it last?
Basal Body Temperature Method
- Slight decrease in temp at ovulation
- Does not occur on all women
- After ovulation BBT increases slightly
- Remains on an elevated plateau until 2 to 4 days before menstruation
- Decreased to the low levels recorded during the previous cycle unless pregnant
- If pregnancy occurs temp remains elevated
- Not a reliable method alone of predicting ovulation
How do you know the fertile days with BBT method?
The day of the first temperature drop or first elevation through 3 consecutive days of elevated temperature.
When does abstinence begin with BBT method?
the first day of menstrual bleeding and lasts through 3 consecutive days of sustained temperature rise.
Decrease and subsequent increase in temperature.
Factors that can affect BBT
- Less than 3 hours of sleep per night
- Awakening late
- Jet lag
- Antipyretic medications taken in the evening
- Sleeping in a heated waterbed