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damage to front of eye (cornea, lense)
- prevents light from reaching retina
- cataract: loss of visual acuity; lense opacity blocks light from reaching retina
damage retina (retina, fovea)
light may be able to reach retina
but if retina is not functional then unable to see in that location
- damage to small point in retina (v1,v2,v3)
- -scotoma: small area of impared/lost vision in the visual field
damage to optic nerves, cortical pathways, visual cortex (optic nerve)
damaged optic nerve--> blind-spot; no photoreceptor layer to receive light in this location
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