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What is the Torah? What does the Torah represents and reveal to us?
There are two sections of the Torah, written torah and oral torah. The written torah has 3 parts commonly known as tanakh: 5 books of moses, as told from G-d (Talks about creation (adam and eve) and how Jews are people chosen by G-d to be a “kingdom of priests and a holy nation” through receiving and observing the Torah. 613 commandments of what to do and what not to do), Neviim – recordings of what G-d said to prophets, and Ketuvim – Writings of prophets. Hand written on parchment that can only be touched with a pointer called a yad. The oral torah was other laws told by G-d to Moses that were passed down generation by generation, it was written into a book called the Talmud.
1st of three Patriarchs. The first Jew. Discovered G-d on his own and rejected the idolatry of his contemporaries. G-d told him to travel from his home to spread G-d’s word about the destiny of the Jewish people and their land heritage. Successfully withstood 10 tests from G-d, including the well known test of sacrificing Issac his son.
Greatest prophet ever to live. Born in Egypt and when he was three months old, Moses was hidden in a basket set afloat in the Nile to escape Pharaoh's decree that all male Hebrew children be drowned. Found and raised by Pharoh’s daughter. G-d told him in a burning bush at Mount Sinai to go to Egypt and free the Israelites, but Pharaoh would not listen. Moses told Pharaoh that if he did not let his people go, G-d would punish him with 10 plagues. Led the Israelites out and passed on to them the Torah at Mt. Sinai. Led the Israelites for forty years while they traveled in the desert, all the while performing astonishing miracles and wonders.
Concept that Jews are chosen people by G-d.
G-d made a covenant with Abraham to go from his home in Mesopotamia to Canaan to tell the people about the Holy Land that was given to them as eternal heritage. But in order to accept this new land they must experience 400 years of suffering. The followers of Judaism were able to overcome this suffering by humility, therefore able to spread the word of G-d and the idea of monotheism. They were chosen as the first people to make the idea of only one G-d known to the world, only privileged to do so after the 400 years of suffering.
Explain some festival and main rituals ceremonies. Dietary laws.
Rosh Hashana – New Year, then Yom Kippur – cleansing sin, day of atonement / fasting, not wash our bodies, not wear leather footwear, and abstain from marital relations, Chanukah - eight-day festival celebrating the Maccabees’ recapture of the second Temple from the Syrian Greeks, and its rededication, marked by the kindling of lights on a menorah. Circumcision for males, Sabbath observance, keeping kosher – separation meat and dairy, pareve (3rd category of neither) can be eaten with both.
Who was Jesus, what was his personality, steps in life, what did he represents for church and Christian world?
Jesus was born in 4AD in Nazareth to the Virgin Mary and the carpenter Josephe as a Jew. Jesus was supposedly the messiah that the Jews were waiting for, however only a small portion of the Jews did believe this and went on to spread the word of his messiah or Christ, therefore creating Christianity. G-d sent the angle Gabriel to Galilee to tell the virgin Mary that she was to be impregnated by G-d’s spirit (the holy ghost, aka G-d in spirit form) to birth Jesus, the son of G-d (aka G-d but in human form). God sent His Son, Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, to earth in a human body to live the perfect life and to take the just punishment for sin upon Himself by dying on the cross (crucifixion) in our place. Transmitted the message: "love your enemies" that was not accepted in Palestine at this time.
Between Jews and Jesus preaching, what/where is the line of separation? What was Jesus’ turning point?
Jesus had a different interpretation of the Torah. He probably started to change the way others think when he was found in Rome at a temple at 12 years old, asking very advanced questions, and answering them beyond his years. Jesus was a social preacher who believed that everyone was the same whether king, slave, rich or poor. He healed the sickly, he went up to those whom were out casted and created miracles every day of the week, and did not keep the Sabbath. For instance, after John died, he went to Jerusalem to preach dangerous things that people are afraid of and he cleansed the temple, driving out people who were selling things there, saying that the temple should be a house of prayer only, not “a den of robbers.” Finally after being baptized by John the Baptist, when he says his sermon on the mount (matthew 5:7) he is clearly differentiating himself from the Jewish faith by making clear remarks as to what he believes in, making this sermon one of the foundations to the Christian doctrine.
Explain the persecution and crucifixion of Jesus.
Jesus was preaching things, like being the Messiah, which orthodox Jews and Romans did not agree with. For instance, in his hometown, Nazareth, Jesus was made fun of. They asked him, but are you not the son of Mary and the son of Joseph, but a carpenter’s son? They could not believe that a man from humble beginnings could have learned such powerful wisdom. Herod, King of Roman rule, had to make sure that there was not a revolt of Jews against the Romans. When Jesus heard he killed John the Baptist, he then predicted his own crucifixion and resurrection. Judah betrayed Jesus by telling the whereabouts of him to the Romans. Jesus was taking to Pontius Pilatus, not certain of his guilt, but judged anyways according to the Roman right. The people in the crowd chose to kill Jesus but the set free probably a zealot.
Who were the 4 main gospels? When were they chosen (specify date)? Why did Constantine and the roman church choose them? What do they represent?
- Matthew 37-68AD - tax collector and apostle,
- Mark 40-65AD - missionary - 1st written gospel,
- Luke 59-61AD - greek doctor travelled with Paul,
- John 80-98AD - fisherman apostle. (times are the dates written). They represent accounts of the occurrence of Jesus Christ, and his good news; His revelation of being the Messiah, Son of G-d and his teaching of wisdom to help prevent people from sin and misery.
Talk about the exsistance of other gospels.
- Thomas – Does not narrate Jesus’ life, found in 1945, 114 of Jesus’ sayings.
- Mary Magdalene - A prostitute whom Jesus cleansed. She was a follower of Jesus and accompanied him on his travels with the other 12 disciples, and other followers. She was one of the first people to see Jesus after his resurrection.
Meaning of Islam, Muslims, and Qu'ran.
Islam – the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah in 6th century CE. It means submission to peace.Muslims – Follower of Islam. Quran – Islamic holy book of Muhammad’s revelations.
Who was Mohammed why he was called the sill of the prophets?
Muhammad was chosen by God to deliver His Message of Peace, namely Islam. He was born in 570, C.E. in Makkah, Arabia. He was entrusted with the Message of Islam when he was at the age of forty years. The revelation that he received is called the Qur'an, while the message is called Islam. Muhammad is the very last Prophet of G-d to mankind. His message was and is still to all of mankind, including the Christians and Jews. Muhammad is considered to be the summation and culmination of all the prophets and messengers that came before him. He was entrusted with the power of explaining, interpreting and living the teachings of the Qur'an.
Explain the 5 pillars of Islam.
A. Creed (Shahadah):The verbal commitment and pledge that there is only One God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God, is considered to be the creed of Islam.B. Prayers (Salat):The performance of the five daily prayers is required of Muslims.C. Fasting (Saum):Fasting is total abstinance from food, liquids and intimate relations from dawn to sunset during the entire month of Ramadan.D. Purifying Tax (Zakat):This is an annual payment of a certain percentage of a Muslim's property, which is distributed among the poor or other rightful beneficiaries.E. Pilgrimage (Hajj):The performance of pilgrimage to Makkah is required once in a lifetime if the means are available. Hajj is, in part, a memorial to the trials and tribulations of Prophet Abraham, his wife Hagar and his eldest son, Prophet Ishmael.
IN SHORT: 1)testimony of faith – Allah is only g-d prayer2)alms giving – percent of yearly money is given to poor3)5 times a day pray in direction of Mecca4)Ramadan – fasting, no drinking or sexual relations5)Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime
What are the forbidden acts in the Islamic religion?
martyr, suicide, adultery, homicide, perjury, witchcraft, stealing, telling lies about allah, pilfering, fortification, gambling, drinking, false accusations, cheating, eating pork, belief in polytheism, ect
Perspective of Islam from modern day Islamics.
Ramadan is only important rule in Islam. Islam is basically a peaceful religion. In reality, more countries are being less demanding, allowing for casual dress like in Istanbul. Also more women are becoming educated, and in feminist groups are forming to advance women’s rights further, questioning patriarchal interpretations of Islamic teachings.
Perspective of Islam from western world point of view.
Preconceived notions of stereotypes: Polygamy, terrorism: al qaeda, immigration to Europe to take over jobs ect for drugs/ prostitution, all women wear burqua’s, women’s submission without rights. Mostly western world regards Islam as being unequal, especially in women’s rights. They believe that there are a lot of extremists out there who support violence, therefore we need to enforce democracy into their countries to rid them of their inequality laws and hatred way of thinking. France banned the wearing of burqua’s and other headscarves.
Describe the role of Islamic women.
Quranic reforms have often helped the position of women in society, often become underminded by tribal customs; It did help by instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education, and divorce. Women’s role in Quran is usually interpreted as fulfilling the role as wife and mother. Hijab is the Quaranic requirement that Muslims dress and behave modestly. Some places specify what has to be covered while others are more due to social norms. The most extreme is the covering of everything except for eyes like a burqua.Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone. Cannot serve alcohol. Men can have multiple wives but women cannot have multiple husbands. During menstruation women are considered unclean and advised against praying and are allowed to be excused from other religious tasks.
Similarities and differences btw 3 religions.
All 3 monotheistic religions except that Christianity has the Trinity. Quran contains little narrative unlike its brethren the old and new testaments of Judaism and Christianity. Judaism rejected Christ as it’s saviour and messiah, as Christians embraced it, while Islam only refers to him as a prophet.Islam teaches that men are basically good, Judaism teaches there are good and bad, and Christianity teaches that men have a sinful nature and are inherently wicked (Slightly different with Protestant sects).
When were the booked for the catholic christian relgion chosen?
Bible was put together by the Catholic Council of Carthage in 397 A.D for Constintines political agenda.
Who was Issac?
2nd of the three Patriarchs. Son of Abraham. 1st to be circumcised after 8 days old. Accompanied his father to be sacrificed at the binding of Isaac, as one of G-d’s tests.
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