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What does Separation and Purification of biochemicals depends?
- Physico-chemical properties
- Molecular Size
- Hydrophobic and Hydrophillic nature
- Biological Affinity
What is precipitation?
A process of separating biological molecules from liquid phase by forming an insoluble aggregates
What happens when Precipitation occurs by salting out?
- Aggregates are formed by addition of reagents
- Salt competes for H2O with protein
What is Isoelectric precipitation?
- A method to aggregate protien by rendering the protein no net electric charge
- Can be done by addition of weak polar solvents or Nonionic polymer
What is crystallization? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
- Obtaining solid forms from impure solution by cooling and vaporization procedure
- Advantage- Single processing step, low energy required
- Disadvantage- non-uniform crystal size
What is chromatography?
A method of separation of mixtures that exploits the differences in partition behavior
What is ion exchange chromatography?
A column chromatography that uses a charged (protiens, amino acids, peptides) stationary phase
What is size exclusion chromatography?
A gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography and separates based on particle size
What is affinity chromatography?
Based on selective non-covalent interations between an analyte and specific molecules
What does liquid-liquid extraction use?
Compressed gas (usually CO2) as extracting solvent
What is Lyophilization?
- It is a process of drying by freezing
- Used for long term storage
What is Sterilization?
Total destruction of all forms of life
What does a disinfectant do?
Destroy microorganism on inanimate objects
What does an antiseptic do?
Destroys microorganisms on living tissue
What does sanitizing do?
Reduces the number of microbes to a safe level
What does sterilization do?
Kill all microbes
How does dry heat sterilization work?
Autoclaving- 160-170 C for > 2 hours
What is steam sterilization?
A sterilization technique by moist heat reaching all the surfaces of the material to be sterilized
What is gas sterilization?
Using gases and vapors that possess germicidal properties
What is sterilization by Ionizing radiation?
Implement the use of electrons from accelerators or radioisotopes
What are the advantages and disadvantages of liquid chemical sterilization?
- Advantage- good to sterilize istems that dont withstand other types of sterilization
- Disadvantage- corrosion of metal surfaces
- Toxic residual effect on tissue
What is filter sterilization?
A technique used to physically exclude microorganisms from a fluid or air